مقاله حاضر در چارچوب نظریه استعاره مفهومی و طرحوارههای تصوری، دو مفهوم قرآنی شیطان و ابلیس را به عنوان مفاهیمی انتزاعی و غیر قابل ادراک حسی بر پایه مقوله حرکت به عنوان یکی از متدوالترین حوزههای شناختی تجربه، با هدف دستیابی به درکی عمیق و جامع از این مفاهیم قرآنی مورد بررسی قرار داده است تا با بهرهگیری از روشی علمی در مطالعات تفسیری مدل مفهومسازی قرآن در تبیین جایگاه شیطان/ابلیس در نظام هدایت/گمراهی را روشن نماید. پس از استخراج آیات مشتمل بر کلیدواژههای شیطان و ابلیس، افزودن آیات مرتبط به صورت دستی و استخراج آیاتی که حرکت در آنها وجود دارد، پیکرهای مشتمل بر 78 رویداد حرکتی و 107 آیه به دست آمد. بررسی پیکره مذکور نشان داد که نافرمانی و تنزل درجه شیطان به صورت خروج از مسیر، حرکت از بالا به پایین و از مکان مشخص به نامشخص تحت تاثیر نیروی خدا که نشان دهنده حرکت از وضعیت مطلوب به نامطلوب میباشد، مفهومسازی شده است. شیطان به صورت موجودی که در مسیر مانع ایجاد میکند، انسان را تکان میدهد، او را از مسیر منحرف و از بالا به پایین پرتاب میکند به عنوان جزئی از کلان استعاره [بندگی خدا، قرار داشتن در یک مسیر است] مفهومسازی شده است. بر مبنای استعاره دانش بنیاد [شیطان پیامبر است] پذیرش وسوسه شیطان به صورت حرکت به دنبال مقصدی متحرک در مسیری لغزنده به سوی هدفی نامشخص مفهومسازی شده است. گرچه در حرکت شیطان و پیروانش در دنیا مقصد برجستهسازی نشده، در آخرت به سمت مقصد مشخص (عذاب و جهنم) است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Conceptualization of the influence of Satan in guidance /misguidance system based on the category of motion in the Holy Quran: A Cognitive approach
The two concepts of guidance and misguidance in the Qur'an conceptualized based on the mega-metaphor WORSHIP OF THE GOD IS TO BE ON A PATH. These two concepts are completely dependent on the category of movement. This mega-metaphor includes components such as the conceptualization of divine messengers as a guide (cf. A'raf / 158), following the divine commands as moving towards God (cf. Nisa/ 100), reaching high human degrees in the form of Approaching God (cf. Al-Imran/ 45), and not accepting the worship of God in the form of deviating from the path (cf. Baqarah/ 108). Satan also plays a role here as an effective element in misleading.
The movement basis of the mega-metaphor predominant the conceptualization of misguidance and the influence of the Satan in misleading man and the important role of motion in shaping human thought as one of the most common experiential cognitive domains in all languages (Azkia et al., 2015, p.32) has led the present study to investigate the conceptualization of Satan and its effect on human misguidance based on the category of motion.
First, all the verses in the Holy Quran were extracted with the keywords of Satan and Iblis, and then, by manual examination, the related verses added to the corpus. Then, by studying the mentioned verses, the verses in which the category of movement played a role in conceptualization became the basis of further studies. In total, in relation to the category of movement in the conceptualization of Satan and Iblis, a corpus with 107 verses consisting of 78 motion events obtained. This corpus became the basis for studying how the Satan/ Iblis conceptualized based on the category of motion.
The mentioned corpus can divide into two parts: 1- The condition of the Satan/ Iblis himself and 2- the influence of Satan on the misguidance of humans.
The change of the state of the Satan from the creature who was in the position of angels to the current state initially conceptualized as leaving a specific place without referring to the destination of movement and without force. In this way, the concept of "primary misguidance ", which is the choice of disobedience to God, explained as a voluntary departure from the place. In later stages, the concept of "secondary misguidance ", which is the result of one's malice and is from God, and the degradation of Satan is conceptualized by moving from top to bottom and from the center to the periphery under the influence of God's force.
Misleading Adam and Eve by Satan conceptualized as slipping, getting them out of a certain place to an indefinite place, and moving from top to bottom. The first stage of the misguidance of Adam and Eve expressed as the departure from the place under the influence of the power of Satan, which refers to the influence of Satan in the "primary misguidance"; In this way, misleading God includes only those who have already disobeyed His command voluntarily (secondary misguidance), but Satan misleads people without such grounds. In this way, these two completely abstract concepts (primary and secondary misguidance) conceptualized in a complete sensory way based on the category of motion and force schema.
According to the mega-metaphor WORSHIP OF THE GOD IS TO BE ON A PATH, Satan, as the one who obstructs the path of movement and takes man out of his path, throws him from top to bottom, causes him to slip and shake violently, holding him back and dragging him to an unknown place, is conceptualized. Man's daily experience of movement has shown him that the existence of an obstacle in the path of movement and getting out of the path is undesirable. Vibration, slippage, and strong shaking are reminiscent of earthquakes and are very undesirable, and moving from top to bottom is reminiscent of falling, which in addition to being frightening indicates a transition from favorable to unfavorable, as well as holding back, which is reminiscent of lack of progress and Dragging in an uncertain place that evokes astonishment and bewilderment. In contrast, following the divine messengers conceptualized as moving in an unobstructed, fearless, and upward direction, all of which is desirable in human sensory-motor experience.
In the conceptualization of man who has accepted the temptations of Satan, the knowledge-based metaphor SATAN IS THE PROPHET has the greatest role; in such a way that Satan is conceptualized as a prophet and his false words are conceptualized as the holy book of Satan's followers. The concept of following the Satan as an abstract concept placed in the sensory circle of human perception in such a way that the path of worship, if followed by the messenger of God, is a path without obstacles, clear and without fear to the top and destination of God. On the contrary, deviating from this path and placing the Satan in the place of God's messenger and his word instead of the holy book is deviation and movement in pursuit of a moving and unstable destination in a slippery path to an indefinite goal. This type of movement is completely undesirable in human sensory-motor experience.
In all cases related to the conceptualization of Satan as an effective factor in the misguidance of humans, the destination of the movement is unknown or Satan introduced as a moving and unstable destination. The movement for which no specific destination is defined in the world has a destination in the Hereafter, and its destination is hell. Hence, following Satan conceptualized as moving towards an ambiguous destination in this world and moving towards hell in the hereafter.