نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

چکیده

پژوهش در رفتار نحوی و معناشناختی ساختهای کنترلی، به ویژه پیش از آغاز برنامه کمینگی، تنها محدود به بررسی متممهای ناخودایستای مصدری می‌شد که نوعاً در زبانهایی مانند زبان انگلیسی یافت می‌شوند. در آن زمان، نبود بندهای مصدری و وجود بندهای دیگری مانند بندهای خودایستای التزامی در زبانهایی مانند زبان فارسی، که دارای این وجه دستوری هستند، کار توصیف ساختهای کنترلی را به عنوان یک پدیده جامع و زبان‌گذر دشوار می‌نمود. در توصیفهای پیش از این دوران، یک ساخت کنترلی نوعاً می‌توانست تنها در ساخت مصدری (و اسم مصدری) بروز یابد که فاقد ویژگیهای شخص، شمار، زمان، وجه، و متمم‌نما است. بررسی ساختاری انواع دیگری از بندهای متمم کنترلی، شامل انواع بندهای التزامی، بندهای اسم مصدری، و نیز بندهای غیرشخصی نوعاً هنگام بررسی این تنوع ساختاری در زبانهای دیگری به جز زبان انگلیسی فراهم شد. از آنجا که زبان فارسی دارای این گونه تنوع ساختاری در بندهای متممی کنترلی خود است، نیاز به بررسی، توصیف، و رده‌بندی این ساختها در این زبان حس می‌شود. بر این پایه، جستار کنونی بر آن است که دریابد که در زبان فارسی بندهای متممی کنترلی در چه نوع بندهای متممی بروز می یابند. حاصل این کاوش، ایجاد دسته بندیهای نحوی و معنا شناختی از انواع بندهای متممی کنترلی در این زبان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Classification of the Embedded Clauses in Control Constructions in Persian

چکیده [English]

Under the infinitive constructions in languages like English, the analysis of embedded control constructions, especially prior the onset of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky & Lasnik, (1993), was typically confined to the study of a special group of English-type infinitival constructions whose subject position was occupied by PRO. Prior to this era, languages that lacked infinitive constructions, and/or alternatively used other constructions to host control and PRO, were considered marginal to the then mainstream generative tradition. These otherwise constructions posed challenging questions to the mainstream theory of non-finite control and PRO in infinitives.
Nonetheless, with the advent of Minimalism, other clause types, were put in the agenda. Generally, control construction with PRO could also appear in finite and/or subjunctive clauses (Kapetangianni (2010), Landau, (2004, 2013), Lee, (2009), Roussou, (2001), Spyropulous (2007), Terzi, (1993, 1997), among others).
The aim of present study is to classify Persian control constructions according to the type of embedded clause that can host. More specifically, the results of the current study shows that there are several types of control constructions in Persian: embedded finite subjunctives, with two variant forms in obligatory and non-obligatory control environments, embedded gerundive clauses, hosting both obligatory and non-obligatory environments, and a special group of impersonal constructions which can host only non-obligatory control constructions.
Methodologically, the current study follows the three approaches below:
a) the reintroduction of the already attested constructions,
b) the introduction of new classifications based on the generalizations of the already attested constructions,
c) probing into other types of embedded clauses that can host control constructions.
In what follows, we try to follow the approach above.
A. Obligatory control into finite subjunctives
Similar to indicatives, these constructions appear with their full clausal specifications. Specifically, they have obligatory person and number endings on the verbal element within their TPs. The verbal element additionally receives a subjunctive mood clitic be- to its beginning. Moreover, the embedded clause appears as a CP headed by the complementizer ke. This is shown in (1) below.
(1) Rezai [PROi dus=dar-e] (ke) daneʃgah be-r-e.
Reza appealing =have-3Sg that university Sbj-go-3Sg
“Reza likes to go to the university.”
Therefore, these subjunctive control constructions are analogous to the infinitive control constructions found in other languages that have this mood distinction. This category of embedded clause-typing in control environments was classified based on the relevant literature on Persian control (Hashemipour, (1988, 1989), (Ghomeshi, (2001), Karimi, (2005), 2008), Taleghani, (2008), Darzi, (2008), Pirooz, (2008, 2010, 2011, 2016), Darzi & Motavallian, (2010), and Ilkhanipour, (2014), among others).
B. Obligatory control into gerundives:
These gerundives are classified based on Darzi (2001) and a few other suggestions appearing marginally in under the category of subjunctive control including Ghomeshi, (2001:7), and Hashemipour (1989:304). The verbal element in these constructions undergoes the nominalization process, with the derivational ending -æn appearing to the end of the verbal element. These constructions are analogous to the gerundives in other languages like English, and can appear both in the object position and as prepositional object in (2) and (3) respectively.
(2) Rezai [PROi daneʃgah ræft-an-o] dust=dar-e.
Reza university go-Ger-Acc appealing have-3Sg
“Reza likes to go to a university.”
(3) Rezai [æz [PROi daneʃgah ræft-an]] bizar-e.
Reza from university go-Ger unappeal-be.3Sg
“Reza hates going to a university.”
C. Non-obligatory control into gerundives
This new category almost includes no previous literature. Located in the subject position of the matrix clause, these constructions appear as non-obligatory control with PRO having an arbitrary interpretation. Similar to (2) and (3) above, the verbal element in these embedded clauses obligatorily includes a nominalization ending -æn on the verbal element. The lack of this derivational ending renders the string as ungrammatical.
(4) [PROArb daneʃgah ræft-æn/ *ræft-] xub-e.
PROArb university go-Ger/ go-ø good be-3Sg
“It is good to go to the university.”
D. Non-obligatory control into subjunctives
This group of control constructions is the result of an analogy with the finite subjunctive. Can the category of obligatory control in Persian subjunctives (i.e. the group A above) be extended to include non-obligatory control constructions in this language as well? The current study finds the answer positive. Therefore, this new category was introduced into Persian for the first time by this study. These constructions appear as a special type of subjunctive clauses in which the verbal paradigm of the embedded clause is restricted to second person singular or third person plural, respecting generic interpretation in both. However, the two verbal endings correspond to the two categories of generic interpretation, as found below:
a) a generic inclusive interpretation with “second person singular ending” on the verbal element,
b) a generic exclusive interpretation with “third person plural ending” on the verbal element.
These categories can be found in (5) and (6) respectively below. Phonologically, as is the case with control construction, the subject position of these embedded subjunctives should be null. So, an overt nominal element like to “you” in the subject position of these clauses may render the construction non-control.

(5) [PROArb / *to be-r-i daneʃgah] xub-e. (Including the speaker)
PROArb / you Sbj-go-2Sg university good-be.3Sg
“It’s good if you go /one goes to a university.”

(6) [PROArb / una be-r-æn daneʃgah] xub-e. (Excluding the speaker)
PROArb / they Sbj-go-3Pl university good-is
“It’s good if they/ people go to a university.”
These constructions appear only in the informal register of the language, analogous to the class of gerundive non-obligatory control.
E. Non-obligatory control into impersonal constructions
A special category of impersonal constructions, where the verbal element lacks personal endings, can also host non-obligatory control with an arbitrary interpretation of the PRO.
(7) Bayæd [PROArb daneʃgah ræft].
PROArb.ought university go-ø
“One ought to go to a university.”
These control constructions basically appear marginally in the literature on impersonal constructions in this language.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • (non)obligatory control
  • finiteness
  • subjunctives
  • gerundive constructions
  • generic pronouns