خواندن بدون شک یکی از باارزشترین مهارتهای عالی انسان است. برخی معتقدند توانایی واژگانی و نحوی نقش مهمی در توانایی خواندن کودکان دارد. باتوجه به متفاوت بودن زبانها و رسمالخطها، لازم است این پژوهش در کودکان فارسیزبان نیز انجام شود. بنابراین هدف این پژوهش بررسی ارتباط مهارت خواندن انواع واژهها و درک متن با توانایی نحوی و واژگانی کودکان نارساخوان و طبیعی است.
برای انجام این پژوهش میدانی 16 دانشآموز نارساخوان و 32 کودک همتای سنی انتخاب شدند و بعد از اجرای آزمونهای خواندن و درک نحو، بیان دستوری و درک و بیان واژگان، نتایج آن ثبت و با نرمافزار SPSS تحلیل شد.
براساس نتایج پژوهش حاضر در تمام مهارتهای خواندن و مهارتهای واژگانی و نحوی تفاوت معناداری میان دو گروه طبیعی و نارساخوان وجود دارد. درضمن نتایج نشان میدهد در هیچکدام از گروهها میان مهارتهای خواندن با درک ساختهای نحوی و بیان ساختهای دستوری همبستگی معناداری وجود ندارد. بررسی همبستگی میان مهارت خواندن و توانایی واژگانی نیز نشان داد در گروه نارساخوان، خردهآزمون واژگان تصویری با سرعت و دقت خواندن، خردهآزمون واژگان ربطی با سرعت خواندن و خردهآزمون واژگان شفاهی با دقت خواندن و درک متن همبستگی مثبت و معنادار دارد. درضمن همبستگی معناداری میان خواندن واژههای بیقاعده و واژگان تصویری و واژگان شفاهی وجود دارد اما میان خواندن ناواژهها و واژگان تصویری، ربطی و شفاهی همبستگی معناداری وجود ندارد. بنابراین تقویت توانایی واژگانی کودکان نارساخوان علاوه بر بالا بردن مهارتهایی همجون سرعت و دقت خواندن، برای خواندن واژهها به ویژه واژههای بیقاعده ضروری است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The relationship between reading skills and syntactic and lexical abilities in dyslexic and normal Persian-speaking children
Reading is undoubtedly one of the most valuable skills of human. This complex behavior is composed of several distinct and separable skills. Different theories about reading methods have been proposed and each language has a different paradigm depending on its writing system. The most common method can be called one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and graphemes. This method also has drawbacks; according to Ahri and Snowling (2004), if the sequential decoding strategy is slow and inefficient, it overloads the memory, leading to inaccurate pronunciation and lack of associative meaning. As a result of repeated exposure to printed words, children's knowledge of spelling patterns is expanded to facilitate its retrieval of meaning.
To clarify the role of decoding in reading and reading disability, a simple model of reading is proposed. According to the simple view (Gough & Tunmer, 1986), reading ability can result from the combination of decoding and comprehension. In this view, reading comprehension is conceptualized as the product of two interrelated but relatively independent cognitive processes, that is, decoding (or word recognition) and listening comprehension (or language comprehension). Both of them are necessary cognitive components, and neither of each alone is sufficient for successful reading comprehension.
Dyslexia, also known as specific reading disability, has been defined as one of several distinct learning disabilities that reading performance is markedly below what is expected in normally achieving readers (Siegel, 1992).
In addition to word recognition problems, many reading-disabled individuals were found to have impaired reading comprehension. Although the central role of phonological deficits in word recognition difficulties has been widely demonstrated, the role of language abilities in reading profile of dyslexic individuals may not be fully captured.
There are evidence that has consistently demonstrated a strong association between language competence and reading abilities. In particular, oral vocabulary (measured with an oral receptive/expressive measure or a word definition measure) and semantic skills (measured with a synonym judgment task) were found to be concurrent and longitudinal predictors of word recognition and reading comprehension.
The additional contribution of oral vocabulary and semantic skills on reading comprehension in these studies also provides clear support for the position that reading comprehension is a language-based reading task that involves language comprehension beyond word recognition.
Because of different Transparency in orthography of different Language (from transparent to opaque languages), it is necessary to investigate these children in different Language. The present study aimed to convey the relationship between reading skills and syntactic and lexical abilities in dyslexic and normal Persian-speaking children
There are several researches about effective factors in reading. Some believe that vocabulary and syntactic ability play an important role in children's reading ability.
There are also evidences that language skills such as syntactic complexity and lexical Skills in 2 and 3 year olds are important predictors of children's reading accuracy and comprehension in the future.
In some studies, the existence of lexical problems in dyslexic children has been investigated and it has been shown that the level of lexical and semantic ability of children has an effect on their reading comprehension. For example, some have shown that the breadth and depth of children's lexical knowledge affect their ability to recognize words.
Most of the research has been done about the factors that affect reading have been in English. Due to the different languages and orthography of Persian Language, this research needs to be done in Persian-speaking children as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between reading skills and syntactic ability and vocabulary in dyslexic and natural children.
For conducting this field research, after issuing necessary licenses, primary school children with dyslexia were identified by referring to learning disorders schools in Tehran. After evaluating and diagnosing the dyslexic children by psychologist and speech therapist, 16 dyslexic students were selected. The syntax comprehension test, grammar expression test, vocabulary subtest of TOLD 3:P and reading test was then performed in different sessions. The results of the tests were recorded and the data were analyzed by SPSS software.
According to the results of the present study, there is significant difference in reading skills and syntactic and lexical abilities between dyslexic and normal Persian-speaking children. The results show that there is not a significant correlation between reading skills and syntactic abilities, But about lexical abilities in the dyslexic group, there is significant correlation between the picture vocabulary and speed and accuracy of reading, between relational vocabulary and speed of reading and also between oral vocabulary and reading accuracy and text comprehension (p <0.05). In addition, there is a significant correlation between reading irregular words, and picture vocabulary and oral vocabulary, but there is no significant correlation between reading non-words and oral vocabulary, picture vocabulary and relational vocabulary. Therefore, strengthening the lexical ability of dyslexic children, in addition to improving their reading skills (accuracy and fluency), is essential for reading words, especially irregular words.