در هر متنی، باورها، احساسات، پیشداوریها و نگرش شخصی نویسنده آن، به نوعی بروز پیدا میکند که بیانگر موضع و جهتگیری نویسنده آن است. یکی از مقولات مهم دستوری که جهتگیری نویسنده را در یک متن نشان میدهد، «وجهیّت» است. در پژوهشهایی که تاکنون در مورد بررسی وجهیت در رُمانهای زنان ایرانی انجام شده، وجهیت تنها به «وجه فعل» محدود شده و به سایر عناصرِ وجهساز توجه نشده؛ امّا این جهتگیری علاوه بر وجه فعل، در مقولات دیگر دستوری مانند: قید و صفت نیز بروز پیدا میکند. در این پژوهش، مقوله «وجهیت» در رُمان «شوهر عزیز من» نوشته «فریبا کلهر» مورد بررسی قرار میگیرد. هدف از این بررسی، آن است که مشخص شود چه گونههائی از وجهیت در این رُمان به کار رفته و هر کدام از این گونههای وجهیت، بیانگر چه جنبههائی از سبک زنانه است. گونههای پُرکاربرد وجهیت در این رُمان، بر اساس الگوی فاولر (2016) و با بهرهگیری از نظریات مطرحشده در کتاب سبکشناسی محمود فتوحی (2012) مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. این بررسی نشان میدهد که کاربرد این گونهها، بیشتر بیانگر مفهوم تردید و عدم اطمینان است که از جمله ویژگیهای سبک زنانه به شمار میرود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The study of modality in the novel of "My Dear Husband" by Fariba Kalhor based on Fowler’s view
The study of modality in the novel of "My Dear Husband" by Fariba Kalhor based on Fowler’s model
In every text, the beliefs, feelings, prejudices and attitudes of the author is reflected in a way that indicates his stance. With regard to this fact, no novel is objective and neutral and the author, in any case, cautiously or incautiously shows his stance. This stance can be surveyed in different levels of language including: phonology, morphology and syntax. Among them, syntax is ideologically more important. Ideology shows itself in the syntax of a text and the author, based on this fact, chooses a special type of grammatical pattern. By surveying this grammatical pattern, the relationship between language and view of the author can be identified. "Modality" is one of the most important grammatical categories which shows the author's stance in a text. Based on the definition provided by stylists, modality is the potential power of language to reflect the attitudes of the author about the sentence expressed. In every text, the author's attitudes may include a range of his reactions such as wish, desire, duty, obligation, certainty and uncertainty. Researches, concerning modality in the novels written by women, show that modality is restricted to "verb" and other modality maker elements are ignored. But as a matter of fact, this stance, in addition to verb, appears in other grammatical categories such as adverb and adjective. Most world literary texts are ideologically influenced and, in recent decades in Iran, the spread of "feminism" as the governing ideology in literature caused the creation of provocative novels about women subjects, their relationships and social rights. In this article, one of these novels, "My Dear Husband" written by "Fariba Kalhoor" is surveyed. She is known by writing more than one thousand stories and rewriting more ancient works named "The lady of one Thousand Stories". "My Dear Husband" is one of her effective works which is written by women and for them. In this article, based on the Fowler's view, "modality" is studied. To him, by using syntactic elements, modality appears in texts. These syntactic elements are as follows: a) Use of modals, b) Use of modal adverbial phrases, c) Use of adjectives and adverbs as specifiers, d) use of feeling verbs and e) Use of short sayings. To Fowler, these five elements helps to understand the writer's stance. The purpose of this study is to determine which type of modality is used in this novel and what aspects of feminist style is applied. The purpose of this study is to identify what aspects of feminine style are represented by each type of modality. Based on this research, the frequently used types of modalities of this novel are as follows: modality of verbs (epistemic, interrogative and emotional), adverbial and adjective modalities. These modalities, express concepts of dubiety and uncertainty which are of the characteristics of feminine style. Based on the data surveyed, five types of modality are applied in this novel and each represents different concepts: In this novel interrogative modality is frequently used. This shows that women are less confident, to themselves and their thoughts, than men. The narrator also makes mental questions when she encounters happenings or the behavior of the people around her. The narrator often replies the questions, raised by other characters, in his mind and this shows her uncertainty. In this novel, emotional modality is another one which is frequently used. The reason for using this modality is because women are emotional themselves so they use short and independent sentences with emotional load more. In this novel, the frequency of the use of short sentences accelerates the text and makes it exciting. In addition to these modalities, adverbial one is the other feature of the novel "My Dear Husband" Therefore, in this novel, different adverbs show different features of women such as exaggeration and doubtness. As women have been put in weak stance, they use adverbs which indicate uncertainty. They do not speak with certainty and confidence. And finally another type of modality, which is applied in this novel, is adjective modality which helps make certain and unique adjectives and it shows the judgment of the writer to her characters in this novel. As the results of this article show, in this novel, applying different types of modalities shows the feminist style of the writer i.e. Fariba Kalhor. This, of course, does not mean that these types of modalities are only pertinent to women's works and are never utilized in men's works but it indicates that their frequency of occurrence in women's works is more.