نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی ، دانشکده ادبیات و زبان های خارجی، دانشگاه اراک، اراک ، ایران

2 هیات علمی گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و زبان های خارجی، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران

چکیده

نقش‌های منظورشناختی‌ قدرتمند و گوناگون گفتمان‌نماها، معنای لغوی آن‌ها را فاقد اعتبار در گفتمان می‌کند. نتیجة این فرایند، حساسیت گستردۀ این عناصر گفتمانی نسبت به متغیرهای بافتی است و نقش‌ها و راهبردهای دقیق آن‌ها فقط در چارچوب اهداف ارتباطی خلاق مشخص می‌گردد. بنابراین، به نظر محققان پژوهش نقشگرایانۀ آن‌ها در بافت اجنماعی، کاربردی‌ترین روش مطالعۀ آن‌هاست. مبانی معرفت‌شناختی این پژوهش توصیفی، کیفی، و اکتشافی عبارتند از تحلیل دیدگاه‌های محققان معروف و تجزیه و تحلیل منظورشناسانۀ پیکرۀ خلاق و پیچیدۀ متون نقد ترجمه. این پژوهش با استفاده از الگوهای گفتمان-شناختی فریزر (Fraser, 2006) و برینتن (Brinton, 1996) به تجزیه و تحلیل طیف‌های گوناگون نقشی گفتمان‌نماها در متون نقد ترجمه در طول سه دهه با نمونه‌برداری تصادفی خوشه‌ای پرداخته‌است. در این پژوهش الگوی طیف نقشی شش‌وجهی برای مدیریت گفتمان در حوزۀ نقد ترجمه کشف گردید که در کتب دستور و فرهنگ لغات بحث نشده‌اند و از یافته‌های این مطالعه می‌باشند. نتیجۀ کاربردی این پژوهش این است که معنای گزاره‌ای گفتمان‌نماها در نتیجة فرایند کاربردی‌شدگی به شدت تغییر می‌یابد، دارای نقش‌ها و رفتارهای منظورشناختی می‌گردد، و سرانجام طیف نقشی چندگانۀ تعاملی گفتمان‌نماها را بوجود می‌آورد که تحت تاثیر استنباطات پیچیده و خلاق قرار دارند و همیشه در حال تغییر، تحول، و گسترش می‌باشند. کاربردهای مختلفی نیز تحلیل و پیشنهاد گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Discoursal Analysis of Functional Spectrum of Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism: Pedagogic and Research Implications in Discourse Monitoring

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Mohammad Mohammadi 1
  • Rahim Dehghan 2

1 Faculty member of English Department, Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, Arak University, Arak, Iran.

2 Department of English language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, Arak University, Arak, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Establishing coherence in discourse is an interactive process which is activated through different types of communicative knowledges and skills. Part of this knowledge includes knowledge of text to organize grammatical and lexical forms to convey meaning. Another part of this faculty is connected to metalanguage level. It consists of the power to express personal and social identities, to use language to express attitudes and negotiate meaning, and the cognitive ability to manipulate ideas (Maschler and Schiffrin, 2015). Discourse markers (DMs) function in all of the above cognitive, expressive, social, and textual domains and operate as metacommunicative and metadiscursive elements (Frank-job, 2006). Consequently, they become devoid of semantic meaning due to their sensitivity to contextual variables in real life situations and assume new interactive pragmatic behaviors and strategies known as pragmaticalization in discourse (Jucker & Ziv, 1998). Therefore, their real precise and comprehensive uses, functions, and strategies can mainly be explored within the framework of communicative purposes and interactive contexts. Consequently, some researchers come to the idea that analysis of functional spectrum of discourse markers in social contexts is the most practical and useful method of investigation (Crible & Degand, 2019; Frank-job, 2006; Groute, 2002; Hyland, 2005; Trillo, 2009). As a result, the researchers tried to analyze translation criticism in Persian language in terms of the types and the frequency of DMs functions.

This descriptive, qualitative, and explorative study benefits from various scientific and research informing bases and resources: study of famous and key authors’ theoretical studies, analysis of key empirically corpus-based researches, and pragmatic analysis of the functional spectrum of discourse markers in randomly selected translation criticism corpus in Persian language during the three last decades. Moreover, the present study applied Fraser’s (2006) taxonomy of discourse markers and Brinton’s (1996) functional model for the analysis of discourse markers. The taxonomy of discourse markers provides the criteria for determination of DM use from non-DM use of these meta-discursive elements in translation criticism discourse. And the functional model is applied to discover the functional range of DMs in this genre. Another informing resource of the research was its raters. Both raters were English Instructors with 5 years of experience in teaching, were familiar with the literature, both conducted researches in this area, and possessed the necessary expertise.

The corpus consisted of 15 translation criticisms written by Iranian translation professors (%75) and professional translators (%25) published in Motarjem, the Iranian journal with more than 30 years of experience in translation theory, analysis, and education. Moreover, the corpus consisted of more 30000 words. It was selected randomly. All of the instances of DMs use were determined and sorted by applying Fraser’s taxonomy of discourse markers and DMs functional spectrums were analyzed and explored through Brinton’s functional model. And about %50 of the instances of the DMs along with their functions in the sentence were extracted and given to the raters to approve the reliability of the research.

The findings resulted in a six plane functional spectrum model for discourse monitoring system in translation criticism genre including information indicators, topic switchers, attitude markers, temporal markers, opening markers, and closing markers. These functions are not covered in Persian grammar and dictionaries. Also, the correlation coefficient of inter-rater reliability was .61, an acceptable index of reliability. The diversity and flexibility in the functional spectrum can be justified from different perspectives. Well, in the process of translation criticism DMs are manipulated creatively in order to prove the inadequacies of the translation or to characterize the qualifications of the rendering. This justification is in line with findings and ideas reported by Fischer (2006). Moreover, justification for this flexibility is related to Frank-job’s (2006) view of pragmaticalization of meaning in discourse. That is, in real life situations, the propositional meaning of discourse markers is changed drastically, they assume novel pragmatic meanings, and these meanings change based on context. This context covers cognitive, expressive, social, and textual domains. These domains are manipulated by contextual variables. These variables include people, places, and times. DMs functional spectrums are manipulated by the variables and they assume new interactive meanings in discourse. This functional spectrum may constantly be influenced by multiple, complex, innovative, and creative inferences and is always changing, developing, and evolving systematically. As DMs form the basic cognitive, social, cultural, and efficient discursive system of human communication, then, it is recommended that any modifications, developments, and plans in education, research, and management in various aspects of translation education should be based on research on the pragmatic functions of these metalanguage elements.
Keywords: functional spectrum, discourse markers, translation criticism, pragmaticalization

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • functional spectrum
  • discourse markers
  • translation criticism