در بافت حقوقی، دادنامهها گزارشها و اسنادی مهم تلقی میشوند زیرا حکم صادره توسط مراجع قضایی منجر به فیصله دعوا میشود. از این رو بررسی فحوای آن برای طرفین دعوا بسیار سرنوشتساز است. در بررسی متن آنها، با ابهاماتی از جمله حذف گروههای اسمی و در برخی موارد گروههای فعلی مواجه شدیم. هدف از جستار حاضر یافتن عناصر یادشده و تشریح هر بند به لحاظ معناشناختی است. لذا 48 دادنامه حقوقی و کیفری به صورت تصادفی از دهه 50 تا 90 انتخاب و با استفاده از انگاره گذرایی از فرانقش اندیشگانی هلیدی به عنوان ابزاری کارآمد تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. از آمار توصیفی برای محاسبه میزان بسامد دادهها استفاده شده است. نتایج بدست آمده حاکی از آن است که ویژگی بندهای مزبور که متضمن تشریح و تبیین شرایط و دستور به انجام و یا ترک عمل و نیز اعلام تبرئهشدن و یا مجرمیت است در واقع بیانگر حقایق و وضعیت موجود اعم از صحنه جرم و یا رخدادهای پرونده، اسامی طرفین اختلاف و دیگر موارد حسب موضوع است. در متون مورد بررسی هیچ گزارهای یافت نشد که حاکی از ارائهی تظاهرهای بیرونی از اعمال باشد و سبک نوشتاری این متون این چنین است که در ابتدا مستندات و ادله بیان میشود، سپس حکم و رأی انشاء میشود. به طور کلی بالا بودن میزان بسامد فرآیند مادی نشان داد که ژانر حقوقی تأکید بر لازمالاجرا بودن احکام و دستورالعملها دارد تا رفتارهای بیرونی.
واژگان کلیدی: حکم، متون حقوقی، انگاره گذرایی و فرانقش اندیشگانی.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis the written style of the criminal and legal lawsuits based on the systematic functional grammar
In legal context, lawsuits are considered as important reports and documents because they involve verdicts or the same decision of the judicial authority. All or some of the verdicts of the dispute are resolved. So, they are binding and decisive. By examining the texts, it was clearly seen that they are ellipsis and ambiguities which are included some verbs and nominal groups that according to equivalent-deletion rule are omitted. Actually, these ambiguities and ellipsis arose over the coordination of one verb with another one by using and as relative clause in order to avoid the repetition. The nominal groups as subjects which are omitted because of the topicalization to make passive sentence is another ambiguous factor. Therefore, the first question of the present article is what each clause of the written lawsuits represent according to Halliday’s transitivity model and the second question of the research seeks which process, participants, and circumstances have the most frequency.
Whatever were mentioned above leads to select and analyze 48 criminal and legal lawsuits randomly from the 50s to the 90s by utilization of the transitivity model from Halliday’s ideational metafunction as an efficient tool. Frist of all, the ellipsis elements are found into the text. Then, by diagnosis of the sort of the process in terms of semantically; the variety of the participants would recognize. Afterwards the sort of circumstances of each clause demonstrate the manner and reason of the occurrence of process. All the elements of transitivity model are represented in a table. The descriptive statistics have been used to measure the frequency of data and some tables are drawn to show them. At the end, all the frequencies would compare and interpret.
According to the first question of this research, the material process in legal discourse involves the performance of action. Same clauses which in terms of discourse are related with this kind of process show the strength of the verbal of the judge or prosecutor. Such clauses are more active and dynamic. The sort of the participants which are more used in this process are goal and actor. So, the goal participant indicates that in this genre, the action is more important than the actor, for this reason the clauses are seen as topicalization with a passive structure. In some clauses, the relational process expresses and explains the situation and the scene of crime. however, it describes the reason of the issued verdicts in another clauses. Therefore, the gender of its participants is identified, identifier, carrier, and attributing. the attributing is the only participants which has the highest frequency. In fact, the description of the situation is more significant. The clauses which are included a speech by a person as a judicial representative that they announce the final verdict is verbal process. In this process, participants are sayer, receiver, and target. The only participant which is more used in these texts is target because it is more important to know the results of the discussion and the decision. Some clauses which are representing the desire and aspiration are a mental process with the participants of the sensor and the phenomenon or stimulus. Such clauses are made by the person as defendant or claimant, so they don’t have verbal power in terms of discourse. The existence of evidence implies an existential process, and the only participant in this process is the existing element, so the first hypothesis is acceptable. The second question showed that the material process has the highest frequency. in this way the second hypothesis is rejected.
The conclusions demonstrated that the legal genre emphasizes on the validity of the verdicts and the characteristics of each clauses were included: order to take action and commutation, explain and comment the situation, express the facts and evidence in the crime scene, announce and request the verdicts because all processes are observed except the behavioral process. No such statement was found in such texts to indicate the external manifestations of the acts. The writing style of these texts shows, the documents and evidences are stated at first, then the verdict and judgment are written. In general, the frequency of the material process demonstrated that the legal genre emphasizes the necessity of enforcing judgments and instructions rather than external behaviors. It seems that there is a correlation between the type of processes and the circumstances’ elements; Because the circumstances’ elements which are more commutation and act, they show the necessity of carrying out the sentences. In the legal genre of litigation, this circumstances’ element emphases on the enforceability of judgments.
Key words: lawsuit, legal text, transitivity model, and ideational metafunction.