نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زبان های خارجی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 پژوهشگر پسا دکترای رشته علوم قرآن و حدیث دانشگاه الزهرا

3 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به بررسی شیوۀ مفهوم‌سازی خشم و عذاب الهی در قرآن کریم می‌پردازد. بدین‌منظور، ابتدا آیات حاوی مضامین فوق جمع‌آوری و سپس به‌لحاظ حوزه‌های مبدأ و نیز مراحل و سناریوی خشم مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. هدف از این بررسی، یافتن تناظرهای قابلِ درک برای انسان در قرآن کریم است. مبنای این تناظر، شیوۀ مفهوم‌سازی خشم و الگوی حاکم بر آن در حالات مختلف انسانی، مدل ارائه‌شده توسط کووچش (1986)، می‌باشد. از نتایج این بررسی می‌توان به موارد زیر اشاره نمود: مفهوم‌سازی خشم در قرآن کریم با استفاده از حوزه‌های مبدأ «آتش»، «بلا و خسران»، «حیوان»، «مادۀ خوراکیِ‌تلخ و گزنده»، «تاریکی و ظلمت» و «فاصله» صورت گرفته‌است که شباهت قابلِ توجهی با حوزه‌های مبدأ خشمِ انسانی دارد. این شباهت‌ها با توجه به ماهیّت متفاوت خشم در بشر و خداوند، از آن‌جهت اهمیّت دارد که سازوکارهای کلام قرآنی را در انتقال پیام الهی به مخاطب بشری نشان می‌دهد. به‌عبارت دیگر، در راستایِ بعد هدایت‌گری و اهمیّت انتقال پیام الهی به مخاطب انسانی، خداوند از کلامی برای ارتباط با انسان استفاده می‌کند که برای نوع بشر ملموس و مأنوس بوده و حقایق معنوی و واقعیات انتزاعی را از طریق مفاهیم عینی و تجربی به او منتقل می‌نماید تا برای مخاطب انسانی درک‌پذیرتر باشد. به‌علاوه، با توجه آیات و مستندات قرآنی الگوی خشم خداوند با سناریوی خشم انسانی تفاوت داشته و شامل سه مرحلۀ بینش و هدایت، هشدار و اخطار و در آخر مرحلۀ عقاب است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Cognitive Analysis of the Concepts of “Divine Anger and worldly Punishment” in the Holy Quran

نویسندگان [English]

  • azadeh sharifi moghadam 1
  • Fatemeh Habibi 2
  • Mahieh Eshaghi 3

1 associative prof. at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman-

2 Postdoctoral Researcher in Quranic and Hadith Sciences, Al-Zahra University

3 pHD from Tehran Univ.

چکیده [English]

A Cognitive Analysis of the Concepts of “Divine Anger and wordly Punishment” in the Holy Quran

1. Introduction
There are many verses in the Holy Qur'an that are related to God’s wrath toward man. The frequency of these verses which are presented in different grammatical forms and meanings implies the importance of this divine message which is to be transferred to the human. Undoubtedly, God’s wrath is quite different from human anger in nature. However, a man knows the concepts that he has experienced himself and this includes emotions like anger. According to cognitive linguists, metaphor is a way of conveying abstract concepts (namely the source domains) to concrete concepts (namely the target domains). This study seeks to answer the following questions:
- How does the concept of divine anger is conceptualized in the Holy Quran?
- What are the target domains?
- What are the differences between the prototype scenario in God and a man?
2. Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework used in this study is Kovecses’s (1986) theory of human anger. His model includes a list of source domains that are mapped onto the target domain of anger as well as the scenario of anger. The source domains are:
A) The central metaphor of “anger is fire/heat”.
The major metaphors of:
B) Anger is insanity.
C) Anger is a dangerous animal.
D) Anger is an opponent (in a struggle).
E) Anger is a burden.
F) Anger is trespassing.
As well as the general metaphors such as: “existence are pressure” and “body is the container of feeling”.
The scenario of anger called “prototype scenario” include the following stages:
Stage 1: offending event,
Stage 2: anger,
Stage 3: an attempt at control,
Stage 4: loss of control,
Stage 5: an act of retribution.
3. Review of Literature
Cognitive linguistics was introduced by the publication of the book “Metaphors we live by” by Lakoff and Johnson in the '80s. This approach made fundamental changes in the study and analysis of metaphor that has remained unchanged since Aristotle. The new approach quickly replaced the classic one and it soon attracted many researchers toward this method of analysis. The term ‘conceptual metaphor’ is well known among Iranian researchers and a significant number of works can be found in this area, among the most important are the following:
- Hooshagi & Seyfi porgu (2009) studied the most frequent source domains in the Holy Quran and listed them.
- Ghaeminiya (2009) analyzes the conceptual metaphors used in the Holy Quran, believing that cognitive theory has an impact on understanding the Qur'anic verses.
- Pour Ebrahim (2009) lists the types of conceptual metaphors in the first half of the Qur'an (15 parts).
- Veysi & Ouraki (2015) analyze metaphorical structures in the holy Quran. They believe that the cognitive approach is capable of analyzing verbal metaphors. thought.
- Andalibi (2006) focuses on the meta-metaphor of " Man as the Servant of God" and studies the relationship between ‘God’ and ‘Man’ in the metaphoric terms.
4. Methodology
the present study is qualitative and descriptive-analytic research. To investigate how the concept of anger is conceptualized in the Holy Quran, the verses in which the concept of anger was expressed metaphorically were first extracted and then they were examined regarding the source domains as well as the prototype scenario. The aim was to identify the familiar and understandable concepts to man which are used in the Quran.
5. Conclusion
The findings of this study can be summarized as follows:.
- The following target domains were found in the conceptualization of divine anger in Qur'an: fire, damage and destruction (disease, natural disaster, and destruction), animals, space (excommunication, damn and sealing the heart) and darkness. The target domains used in Qur'an show that although divine anger is quite different from human anger, conceptualization is done in a way that is easy and understandable for the human beings.
- The stages of anger in God are different from the stages of anger in man. The divine scenario of anger consists of the following three stages: ‘Guidance’ is the first stage in which God shows the right path to the people through the prophets and the Holy Scriptures. ‘Warning’ is the next step. In the Holy Quran, there are many verses in the Qur'an that prohibit a man from committing certain sins such as disbelief and lies. The last stage is divine retribution in which God prescribes definite retributions for the sinners.

Key Words: The Holy Quran, cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphors, the model of anger, source and target domains

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "The Holy Quran"
  • "cognitive linguistics"
  • "conceptual metaphors"
  • "the model of anger"
  • "source and target domains"