مطالعات اخیر نشان داده که یادگیری زبان دوم را عواملی چون اضطراب، کمال گرایی و انگیزه تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد. شرکت کنندگان مطالعه حاضر تعداد 400 فراگیرزبان انگلیسی در محدوده سنی 15 تا 30 ساله بودند که سطح مهارت های زبانی انها بر اساس ازمون تعیین سطح موسسه بالاتر از حد متوسط بود. برای برآورد میزان کمال گرایی، مقیاس کمال گرایی چند بعدی (هِویت و فلِت، 1991). برای سنجش فاکتور اضطراب، مقیاس اضطراب (هرویتز، هرویتز و کوپ، 1986)و برای تعیین میزان نقش خود های زبان دوم زبان آموزان شرکت کننده پرسش نامه هویتی چهارقطبی تایلور (2010) مورد استفاده قرار گرفت که با 4 مقیاس اولیه بیانگر چهار دسته خودمحوری(خود خصوصی، خود ایده آل، خود عمومی، خود تحمیل شده) شناخته شده است. پیشرفت زبان آموزان با توجه به نمرات امتحان نهایی آنها سنجیده شد. نتیجه تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که کمال گرائی با اضطراب رابطه معنی داری دارد و رفتار کامل زبان آموزان کمال گرا در حیطه های فردی و اجتماعی می تواند آنها را مظطرب بسازد. علاوه بر این اضطراب فراگیران هویت آنها را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد و در نتیجه به دلیل اعتماد به نفس پایین تر بر یادگیری آنان تاثیر می گذارد. در نهایت اینکه کمال گرائی های مبتنی بر خود و اجتماع با ساختار خود زبان آموزان رابطه معنی داری دارد. و نهایتا، مشخص شد که به واسطه خودهای موجود، در فراگیران زبان دوم یک رابطه ساختاری از کمال گرایی تا اضطراب یادگیری زبان دوم از نظر پیشرفت زبان انگلیسی آنها وجود دارد
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Relationships among Iranian EFL Learners’ Perfectionism, Anxiety and English Language Achievement: The Contribution of L2 Selves
Individual differences are known to play a role in the acquisition of a second language (L2). An especially important variable of this type is perfectionism. Recent studies (e.g., Erozkan, 2016; Flett, Hewitt., Su., &n Flett., 2016) have sought to explain the relationship between this variable and anxiety; however, this task is complicated by the fact that the mechanism or process which underlies this relationship is believed to implicate various mediator variables. Among these are the roles of the self (Mercer & Williams, 2014). In recent years, the key role of the self in second language acquisition (SLA) has also increasingly been gaining recognition from SLA scholars and practitioners (Mercer & Williams, 2014), since being human implies the reflective consciousness of having a self, and the nature of the self is the very essence of being human (Lewis, 1990).
It is worth noting that previous studies have investigated only some, but not all, of the variables under scrutiny in the present study. Accordingly, the overriding goal of the current project was to investigate the relationships among perfectionism, anxiety and language achievement in the L2 context, taking into account the mediating roles of self. Another key feature of this investigation was that Iranian learners of English (ILEs) will be the L2 group of interest. To date, relatively little work has been done on this group, regardless of the specific topic. Also, reflecting on the relevant research findings, we assumed that there might exist a structural relationship from perfectionism to FLA and language achievement.
In addition to fulfilling the research goal stated above, this study achieves several significant advances in the field of SLA, for example, it will increase the meagre amount of research that has been done on ILEs to date; by extension, it will help L2 learners in general to be more aware of the factors that affect learning; as well as it will provide teachers, teacher educators, curriculum designers and researchers with a better understanding of the above factors.
The target population were 400 EFL learners within the age range of 15-30 who enrolled in private language learning institutes in Iran. The participants’ proficiency levels fell within the range of upper-intermediate to advanced sub-levels of ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines as determined by a placement test already administered by the institutes. For estimating perfectionism, Multi-dimensional Perfectionism Scale MPS was used (Hewitt & Flett, 1991). For anxiety factor, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) was used (Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986). Learners’ L2 Self was measured by application of Taylor’s Quadripolar Identity Questionnaire (2010) structured into 4 primary scales representing the four self-categories (private self, ideal self, public selves, imposed selves). Learners’ language achievement was obtained from their final exam scores. The participants will be asked to fill out the related questionnaires. To draw the sample, probability sampling will be used. The sampling method in the present study will be stratified sampling: five institutes will be selected randomly as the accessible population. All the instruments will be administered by regular EFL teachers, with the support of bilingual aides when needed. All study measures will be administered to the participants in the form of a take-home survey to be returned in the next session of the class.
Using a descriptive correlational design, the independent variables in this study are types of perfectionism, FLA and L2 achievement are the dependent variables, and L2 selves and is mediating variable. The participants’ scores on the final exam were collected Initially, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients was computed to estimate the internal consistency estimate of the reliability of the four questionnaires. Then, the data collected by means of questionnaires was explored using correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM). The software package SPSS 24.0 and Amos 8. were used for the descriptive statistics and the correlation analyses, respectively. Reflecting on the research findings, it is assumed that there exists a structural relationship from perfectionism to FLCA and English language achievement via the mediating role of L2 Selves.
Two models were considered to test the hypothesis. The first model is called “model 1”, which tests the effect of perfectionism on achieved score through selves and anxiety constructs. The second model is called “model 2”, testing the effect of perfectionism on achieved score through selves’ sub-factors and anxiety constructs.
In the light of the results, values of fit indices show that all the models have a good fit and for the each two model it is in good and the least acceptable level considering the value of goodness of fit indices, proportation of chi-square to degree of freedom, RMSEA, CFI, NNFI, GFI, and AGFI. In other words, they are in the least acceptable limit for accepting the model.
Overall, the findings of this study are important for researchers, university teaching staff, and the students themselves. It is hoped that increasing and detailed knowledge about the dynamics of foreign language Perfectionism, anxiety and Self-will enlighten foreign language educators and researchers. Thus, these people will be in a better position to help reduce perfectionistic tendencies and as a result anxiety in the English classroom that will better help the students to benefit from English language learning.