چند گروه از زبانهای ایرانی پسوند –gal یا تکواژگونههای آن را به تنهایی یا در کنار پسوندهای دیگر برای جمع بستن اسم به کار میبرند. این پسوند در اصل اسم جمعی به معنای «گروه، دسته» بوده است که سپس به چنین پسوندی با این نقش صرفی تبدیل شده است. این مقاله نشان میدهد که پسوند –gal و تکواژگونههای آن در نتیجۀ دستوریشدگی اسم gal «دسته، گروه» ایجاد شدهاند. پس از مقدمهای دربارۀ دستوریشدگی پسوندهای جمعساز در زبانهای جهان، به بررسی ساخت و چگونگی کاربرد این پسوند در چند گروه از زبانهای ایرانی که این پسوند را استفاده میکنند، پرداخته شده است، سپس مراحل شکلگیری این پسوند در چارچوب فرایند دستوریشدگی بررسی شده است و نشان داده شده است که هر کدام از این گروههای زبانی در چه مرحلهای از روند دستوریشدگی این پسوند قرار دارند. همچنین سازوکارهای معنایی، آوایی، صرفی-نحوی و کاربردشناختی درگیر در روند دستوریشدگی این پسوند نیز بررسی شدهاند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
On grammaticalization of Plural Suffix –gal in Iranian Languages
In Persian and most of New Western Iranian Languages also known as Iranian dialects, plural is marked by –ān inherited from Western Middle Persian plural marker which itself is from the genitive plural ending -ānām, or by –ā from Middle Persian -īhā, originally an abstract marker, developed as a plural marker in inanimate words. In some other languages like Talyshi, Semnani, Balochi and Zazaki which have preserved at least a two-case system, the plural is marked by case ending which is used to distinguish not only cases but also number. Beside these languages, there are six groups that show an innovative forms of the plural suffix -gal taken from a collective suffix. The suffix has been formed as a result of grammaticalizatin of a collective noun gal “group, bound”. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate how the –gal or its allomorphs has been formed by grammaticalization of gal “group, band”.
Traditionally grammaticalization means the increase of the range of a morpheme advancing from a lexical to a grammatical or from a less grammatical to a more grammatical status, for example from a derivative formant to an inflectional one. But in its broadest sense it means the process by which grammar is created, that it offers an explanatory account of how and why grammatical categories arise and develop. Grammaticalization involves four interrelated mechanisms: 1. semantic reduction which means loss or reduction in meaning content; 2. context generalization, e.g. increase of use in new contexts; 3. decategorialization: loss in morphosyntactic properties characteristic of the source forms, also including the loss of independent word status; 4. erosion or phonetic reduction, that is, reduction in phonetic substance. Each of these mechanisms is concerned with a different aspect of language structure or language use, respectively: (1) relates to semantics, (2) to pragmatics, (3) to morphosyntax, and (4) to phonetics. Each of these mechanisms gives rise to development which can be described in the form of a three-stage model as follows: first stage: There is a linguistic expression that is recruited for grammaticalization. Second stage: This expression acquires a second use pattern, but there is ambiguity between the former pattern and the new one. Third stage: Finally, the former pattern is lost, and is replaced by the new pattern.
After an introduction on grammaticalization, and its special use in development of plural markers derived from collective nouns, the morphological and functional features of -gal is examined in six groups of New Western Iranian languages including Bakhtiari, Boirahmadi, Ashtiani, Azarani, Eastern Balochi and Southern Kurdish that use the suffix –gal as plural marker. Considering that there is no historical evidence of the suffix, so by comparative analysis of morphological and functional features of the suffix and its allomorphs in the given languages, the stages of historical development in the grammaticalization of the suffix is recovered. The semantic, phonetic, pragmatic and morphosyntactic mechanisms related to the grammaticalization is also examined.
-gal and its allomorphs are found in a number of Iranian languages including: 1. Baxtiari, a variety of Lori which uses –gal/-yal for animate plural nouns: dorgal “daughters”, piyâyal “men”; beside the former plural marker –õw: behīgõw “brides”; while for inanimate noun the plural marker is –ā: hīvehâ “firewoods”. 2. In Boirahmadi another Lori variety, the plural marker has two allomorphs –al and –yal which are the only plural marker used for all nouns: piyâyal “men”, dâral “trees”. 3. Azarani, a Central Iranian language uses –gal for nouns ending in a vowel: püra-gal “boys”, while the nouns ending in a consonant is marked by –ūn: varg-ūn “wolves”. 4. In Ashtiani, Amora’I and Naya’i –gal is a general marker for plural nouns which may be combined with the plural ending –ân in oblique plural case: jârgal or jârgalân “children”. 5. In Eastern Balochi gal is not a suffix, but it is a noun used as a morpheme of a collective meaning in combination with the noun; the compound noun is inflected in singular: zah.galā “kids” (OBL.SG). 6. in Southern Kurdish we find different varieties of the suffix as –gal, -al and –ayl which are the general plural marker, Kermanshahi: ženayl “women”.
Since there is no evidence of historical background for the suffix –gal in the Iranian languages, to show its historical development we should compare the languages to recover as much as possible the historical stages of its grammaticalisation. Comparative analysis of the languages show that Eastern Balochi shows the first cycle in the process, where gal “a number” is not used as a collective or plural suffix, but is a postnominal noun of a collective meaning in combination with the noun. In Ashtiani –gal is used as plural marker but the oblique plural ending is also used after –gal. The next stage of grammaticalisation is found in Baxtiari and Azarani, where the collective changed to plural, and –gal is used as plural suffix, but with degrees of optionality. The last stage is found in Boirahmadi, Southern Kurdish, Amora’I and Naya’I which –gal turns into a new grammatical category, is used obligatory for all plural noun, and has found some allomorphs.