نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 زبان شناسی رایانشی، دانشکده علوم و فنون نوین، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زبان شناسی. دانشکده ادبیات و زبانهای خارجه، دانشگاه تهران. تهران. ایران

چکیده

فوکونیه و ترنر، با جایگزینی الگوی شبکه ایِ آمیختگی مفهومی به جای الگوی دوحوزه ای استعارۀ مفهومی، معتقدند که این الگو علاوه بر تبیین جنبه های استعاریِ درک آنی، قادر به تبیین جنبه های غیراستعاری نیز می‌باشد. الگوی شبکه ای، علاوه بر دو «حوزۀ درونداد» و نگاشتِ بین آنها، شامل «فضای فراگیر» و «فضای آمیخته» نیز می‌باشد. فضای آمیخته از آمیزش ذهنی دو یا چند فضای درونداد پدید می آید. با توجه به اینکه فضای آمیخته، امری تخیلی است، بنابراین انتخاب رویکرد نظریۀ آمیختگی برای شخـــصیتهای خیالی داستان‌های فانتزی، انتخابی مناسب است. از طرفی، وفق تقسیم بندی پیرس، نشانه بر سه گونه است: نمادین، شمایلی، نمایه ای. براساس این تقسیم، پژوهش پیشِ رو در پیِ رده بندی سوژه های داستان های تخیلی است و در همین راستا، درصدد پاسخ به چهار پرسش درخصوص داستان‌های تخیلی کودک می باشد: تفاوت سوژۀ آمیختۀ درزمانی با همزمانی و نیز سوژۀ آمیختۀ بینانشانه ای با درون نشانه ای چیست؟ وفقِ تقسیمات نشانه ای پیرس، سوژه های آمیخته چگونه رده بندی می‌شوند؟ دروندادهای فضای آمیخته با چه سازوکاری، ضمن معناسازی، سوژه آفرینی می‌کنند؟ این پژوهش برای نخستین بار از نشانه شناسی برای مطالعۀ فضاهای آمیخته و نیز برای رده بندی سوژه های داستان‌های فانتزی بهره می گیرد. این‌که ملاک کودکانه بودن یا نبودن یک داستان به چگونگی دریافت کودک از آن داستان و معناسازی او بستگی دارد، و این‌که پژوهشگران ادبی به فرایندهای شناختیِ مرتبط با متون کودک وقع بسزایی نمی نهند، پژوهش از منظر معناشناسی شناختی در ادبیات کودک را ضرورت می-بخشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Semiotic Categorization of Fantastic Subject in Child Story: based on Conceptual Blending Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • amir hossein zanjanbar 1
  • gholamhossein karimi dostan 2

1 Computational linguistics- Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies- Tehran University- Tehran-Iran

2 Professor of Linguistics Linguistics Department University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

With the replacement of the conceptual blended network model instead of the two-headed model of conceptual metaphor, Fauconnier and Turner argue that, in addition to explaining the metaphorical aspects of immediate understanding, this model is capable of explaining non- metaphorical aspects. The network pattern, in addition to the two domains of the input and mapping, includes also the public space and fusing space. The mixed space emanates from the mental mixing of two or more input spaces. Given that the blended space is fantastic, the choice of the theory of fusion approach is appropriate for imaginary characters in fantasy subject. On the other hand, according to Pierce's classification, the sign is of three kinds: symbolic, figurative, index. Based on this division, the research is ahead in the categorizing of fancy story subjects. In this regard, this research aims to answer four questions about the fantasy stories of the children: what is the difference between the subject of intermingling and coincidence? What is the difference between the definitions in the intersemiotic and in-semiotic? According to Pierce's semiotic categories, what classes do in-semiotic intercourse subjects ranked? What are the mechanisms of the inputs of mixed space for subject creation, while meaning creation? This research uses semiotics for the first time, in the study of mixed spaces as well as to classify fancy story subjects. The frequent use of imaginary characters in the child stories, and the lack of interdisciplinary research in this field, reveals the need for research in order to eliminate gaps.
Text
"Subject" refers to an actor or actionable character that, as the protagonist or one of the main characters, plays a role in advancing the plot.
This study "classifies mixed subjects" from three perspectives:
1. In terms of "time sequence", it is of two types:
" In time (chronic) mixed subject ": The central element of intro domains are the time sequence relation to each other, like a subject that has undergone a transformation. In the story of 'Ugly Duckling' (Andersent,1999) , the semantic center of the first intro is an ugly duckling, and the semantic center of the second intro is a graceful swan. The second intro space (the mental space associated with the swan) is formed in the time sequence of the first intro space (the mental space associated with the duckling).
"Synchronous subject matter": The central element of the two intro domains is that they have no time sequence relation to each other. In " Chimney-Head Mom " (Mazarei,2013), the image drawn in the book from the subject of the story, consists of a combination of two intro spaces, one in which the semantic center is "mother", and in the other, the semantic center is "Chimney". These two semantic centers are two completely independent conceptual categories, which have been combined since the beginning of the story, and have no relation of time sequence to each other.
2. In terms of Metaphor, it is of two types:
"Metaphor-Based Mixed Subject": Two spaces or intro domains can be based on two domains of origin and destination, from a conceptual metaphor. In Chimney Head Mom (Mazarei,2013), the subject is based on the conceptual metaphor of "the highest degree of anger (intro first), the highest degree of fire (intro second)" (Kuchsh,2014,p:197). Because in the mixed space, every time Mom gets angry, Her Chimney head smokes, and the plot is based on this "smoking in anger" feature.
"Metaphor-Independent Mixed Subject": In "Lonely Black Line" (Honarkar,2015), it shows the subject image of a line, the lower half of which is a set of black lines, and the upper half of which is the body of a boy. That is, the subject is the product of a fusion space, whose intro, in the role of origin and destination, are by no means a conceptual metaphor.
3. In terms of semiotics, it is of two types:
Interstitial Mixed Subject: Two independent signifiers, as two intro spaces, can be combined, and from the combination of these two intros, an independent sign emerges, a mixed subject. These two independent signs can belong to one sign system, or to two different sign systems (for example, one belongs to the verbal sign system and the other to the non-verbal system).
Institial Mixed Subject: By combining both aspects of the three aspects of "representation, interpretation, subject," as intro spaces, a mixed space is obtained, called the intertextual interconnected space.
The main goal of the research is to mark the classification of semiotics of intra-symbolic fusion. This research shows that the intra-symbolic mixed subject is of three types: symbolic, symbolic, and indexed. In all three cases, first, the semantic center of one of the intros is "representation", and the semantic center of the other intro is "interpretation." Second, "representation" and "interpretation" in the subjects of "symbolic fusion," "symbolic fusion," and "indexed fusion" are, respectively, aspects of the "Symbolic", "iconic" or "index" sign. The position of the object is determined in "becoming iconic or symbolic or indexing the sign" not in blending. For example, in iconic blending, the object does not have a direct role, because in any of the data, it doesn’t enter directly but indirectly, because it embodies "interpretation", it plays a role through the presence of "interpretation" within the data of the mixed space intro.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Semiotics
  • cognitive semantics
  • Fauconnier
  • blended space
  • child's story