این مقاله به بررسی تحول تاریخی ضمایر انعکاسی مبتنی بر «خود» در زبان فارسی نو میپردازد. همراهی ضمایر شخصی پیبستی با «خود» در همۀ قرون این دوره مشاهده نشده و پژوهش حاضر در صدد است که از منظر ردهشناختی و با بهرهگیری از سلسلهمرتبههای جهانی نمایهسازی شخص و شمار به بررسی ترتیب ظهور و چگونگی تحول این ضمایر بپردازد. بدین منظور پیکرهای منتخب از سه متن روایی از هر یک از یازده قرن این دوره تهیه شد و جملات حاوی ضمایر انعکاسی شخصی استخراج گردید. بسامد وقوع شخصها و شمارهای مختلف این ضمایر و همچنین بسامد نقشهای مختلف آنها در هر قرن در جداولی نمایش داده شده است. بر اساس پیکرۀ مورد بررسی، اولین نشانۀ همراهی ضمیر شخصی با «خود» در قرن هشتم هجری اتفاق افتاده است. همچنین بررسی پیکره نشان میدهد که همراهی ضمایر شخصی پیبستی با «خود» چه از منظر ترتیب ظهور و چه بسامد وقوع دارای اولویت سومشخص بر اولشخص و اول بر دومشخص است و درنتیجه جانداری نقشی در این تحول ندارد. همچنین در مشخصۀ شمار اولویت با شمار مفرد است . همچنین ، اولین همراهی ضمایر پیبستی با «خود» در نقش ملکی و پس از آن در سایر تاکیدیها و سپس انعکاسی بوه است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Effects of person and number hierarchies on development of personal reflexive pronouns in New Persian
This article studies the diachronic development of reflexive pronouns derived from xod in Persian. Not in all centuries of New Persian one can find the personal clitic pronouns attached to xod and it is mostly believed that this attachment is a characteristic of colloquial Persian. The current paper with a typological viewpoint tries to investigate the sequence of emergence and the development process of the reflexive pronouns with different persons and numbers in New Persian. We assume that the process in Persian follows the universal hierarchies of person and number.
In Persian, Similar to English, Turkish and Finnish, one and the same set of reflexive pronouns show both reflexive and emphatic functions. The reflexive pronoun xod in New Persian is derived from xwad in Middle Persian with adverbial function (Mackenzie, 2011), and xwad is a development from the prefix uva with possessive meaning in Old Persian (Kent, 1950). New Persian uses xod as both emphatic and reflexive pronouns in both its spoken and written forms, but it is believed that the emphatic uses of xod precede the reflexive uses (Davari, 2016). This study aims to find out first since which century in the history of New Persian xod has been used as a personal reflexive pronoun, i.e. bearing personal clitic pronouns. Second, it aims to see which ones of person and number features emerged first in reflexive xod and whether and how this development follows the the universal hierarchies of person and number.
Regarding to person and number indexation of different grammatical categories, different hierarchies are introduced (Greenberg, 1966; Comrie, 1989a, 1999b; Woolford, 1999; Corbett, 2000a; Croft, 2003). In some hierarchies (according to some languages), animacy plays a bigger role, dominating first and second persons over third person. However, for some languages animacy is indifferent and they follow the hierarchy with the domination of third person. The investigation of personal reflexive pronouns in Persian also demonstrates the importance of animacy hierarchy in this language. Furthermore, specifically for the presence of reflexive markers for different persons in different languages, Comrie (1989a;1999b) introduces the hierarchy that dominates third person over first and second persons, and Faltz (1985) believes that second person also dominates first person in reflexive pronouns. This study aims to determine what hierarchy plays a role in the development of personal xod into personal reflexive pronouns xodam, xodat, xodaš, xodemān, xodetān, and xodešān. It is also believed that the reflexive markers in their paths of development universally are derived from items with emphatic functions. The current paper has a brief look on the influence of this universal tendency in the development of personal reflexive pronouns as well.
To achieve these aims, a historical corpus of about 500,000 words from texts written in New Persian period, including eleven centuries, is collected. The corpus consists of three selected texts for each century of New Persian. The texts are selected according to their language to be simple (non-figurative), their genre being narrative and including stories, and the tendency of their authors to the use of clitic pronouns in the texts. From this corpus, 192 sentences including the personal reflexive pronouns have been extracted. The frequencies of the personal reflexive pronouns with different persons and numbers and the frequencies of their functions in various centuries are demonstrated in a number of tables.
According to the data, the first uses of personal pronouns attached to xod are not older that 14th or 15th century (8th or 9th in Hijri calendar) and include the singular third person. The third person singular reflexive pronoun xodaš, in both sequence of emergence and its frequency in different centuries, is overtly higher than the first and second persons. This means that in the indexation of Persian reflexive pronouns, animacy does not play an important role. This tendency is in consistency with the person hierarchies introduced by Greenberg (1966) and Comrie (1989a;1999b). In addition, investigating the corpus indicates that in Persian the first person dominates the second person which is a counterexample to the hierarchy introduced by Faltz (1985), portraying the dominance of second over first person in reflexive markers. Following the number hierarchy introduced by Woolford (1999), the single number is dominated over plural in the attachment of personal clitic pronouns to xod. Furthermore, the development of personal reflexive pronouns shows that the first cases are used with emphatic possessive function and later, other emphatic and reflexive functions appeared. This agrees with the study of König and Siemund (2000) indicating preference of emphasis to reflexivity in the development of reflexive markers.