نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

مناداها واحدهای زبانی کوچک، اما مهم در معنای پاره‌گفتار محسوب می‌شوند. آن‌ها را ابزاری برای فراخواندن وجلب توجه مخاطب تعریف کرده‌اند. ازآن‌جاکه ندا و منادا هیچ‌یک از نقش‌های معنایی و یا نحوی را در جمله بر عهده نمی‌گیرند و جزء موضوع‌های جمله محسوب نمی‌شوند، همواره در نحو از موارد حاشیه‌ای محسوب می‌شده‌اند، لذا به لحاظ نحوی مورد مطالعه قرار نگرفته‌اند. بااین‌حال، در دهه‌های اخیر، مطالعات در خصوص مفاهیم کاربردشناختی نشان داده‌اند که در نحو فراتر از لایه گروه متمم‌ساز می‌توان فرافکنی نقشی را درنظر گرفت که رابط بین مرز نحو و کاربردشناختی است. در این لایه امکان بررسی مفاهیم کاربرذشناختی همچون مناداها فراهم می شود. جستار حاضر درصدد است بر اساس فرافکن کارگفتی اسپیس و تنی (2003) که فراتر از لایه گروه متمم‌ساز در نحو قرار دارد، ندا و منادا را در مرز نحو و کاربردشناختی در زبان فارسی موردبررسی قرار دهد. مزیت چنین بررسی این است که می‌توان از تمام مواردی که در یک پاره‌گفتار تحقق می‌یابد، شامل عوامل نحوی و کاربردشناختی تحلیل جامعی ارائه نمود. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد در زبان فارسی می‌توان در لایه کارگفت فرافکن گروه ندا را مطرح کرد. حرف ندا به‌عنوان نشانه کاربردشناختی ندا درهسته قرار دارد که دارای سه مشخصه [+/-اشاره‌ای، +/- رسمیت، +/- آشنائیت] می‌باشد، همچنین، منادا در جایگاه موضوع می‌تواند به شکل اسم، صفت و یا ضمیر قرار بگیرد. از طرفی، در یک گروه ندا باید بین مشخصه‌های نشانه ندا و مشخصه‌های منادا مطابقت وجود داشته باشد، در غیر این صورت، گروه ندا پذیرفتنی نخواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Vocatives and Vocative Particles in the Syntax-pragmatics Interface in Persian

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Ali Ahangar 1
  • Zahra Mozaffari 2

1 University of Sistan and Baluchestan

2 University of Sistan and Baluchestan

چکیده [English]

Vocatives are small but important expressions in the meaning of an utterance. They are defined as a means for calling the attention of an addressee, in order to establish or maintain a relationship between this addressee and some proposition” (Lambrecht, 1996, p.267). In spite of their importance, we can claim that the investigation of the vocatives have been neglected in linguistic inquiry until very recently. In the meantime, the vocatives do not take any syntactic or semantic role in the sentence and are not parts of the sentence structure, they have been considered as peripheral to the syntax as well. Traditionally, vocative phrases have been considered to be purely pragmatic phenomena; as a result, they have been studied from the pragmatic point of view. On the other hand, recent studies (Rizzi, 1997; Spease & Tenny, 2003; Speas, 2004; Hill, 2007, 2013) propose that there are syntactic projections that encode information relevant to the interface between syntax and pragmatics. According to these studies, in a structural field above CP, some pragmatic phenomena such as vocatives can be studied. This assumption is based on the observation in some languages that there are agreement between pragmatic phenomena such as vocatives or interjections and syntactic features such as case, number and persons. Hill (2007) studies vocatives in the speech act domain above CP. He claims that markers surrounding vocative nouns which express pragmatic notions and are thought as attention drawing interjections show restricted pattern of co-occurrence and ordering in languages that calls for a syntactic analysis. Hill (2007) believes that vocative phrases are derived through the same set of computations that apply to the core syntax, except for the point that the fields in which these computations take place are in the domain of discourse. In this approach which tries to analyze pragmatic phenomena in the syntax-pragmatics interface, a vocative phrase is a functional projection, whose head (V0) contains a vocative particle which, in turn, selects a DP (vocative nouns) as its complement. Hill (2013) focuses on internal structure of vocatives and their relations with the clause. He considers a vocative phrase as the indirect object of the speech act head mapped at the left periphery of the clause.
The present study is going to survey vocatives and vocative particles based on Hill’s (2007, 2013) study in the syntax-pragmatics interface in Persian. The advantage of this approach is that it is possible to account for a whole range of pragmatic phenomena occurring in an utterance. The linguistic data in the study were selected from diverse texts including poetic, formal and colloquial writings to account for the formal and informal vocative particles in Persian. In addition, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the internal structure of vocative phrases in Persian?
2. How is it possible to analyze vocative phrases as a pragmatic phenomenon in the syntax-pragmatics interface?
Vocatives in Persian are formed by an optional vocative particle and some grammatical categories like proper or common nouns, adjectives and pronouns (Anvari & Givi, 1997, p.95). Vocative particles (as the head) can be overt or covert in a vocative phrase. By covert, it means that a vocative particle is present in the head position; however, it does not have any phonetic realization. Thus, sometimes, the vocative particle specifies a null vocative in Persian; therefore, it can be understood by the context. The results of the study indicate that a vocative phrase in Persian is a kind of syntactic phrase named “a vocative phrase projection” in the speech act layer in the syntax-pragmatics interface. A vocative phrase contains a vocative either overt or covert particle in the head position of the vocative phrase that selects a vocative as its complement.
The vocative particle in the head position of a vocative phrase projection contains a [2nd person] feature and [inter-personal (i-p)] feature. The [i-p] feature is specified by three other functional features, including [+/-Deictic, +/- formality, +/-familiarity]. Interpersonal feature refers to all kinds of interpersonal relationship between the speaker and the hearer. A vocative sometimes refers to a hearer that can be the speaker, so it has deictic property. If no referent is available, the deictic feature is inactive. The feature formality refers to the usage of formal or informal vocative particles in Persian. The feature familiarity refers to the speaker-addressee relations. Sometimes, there is a close relation between the speaker and the hearer; therefore, the feature of familiarity is active. In conclusion, the present study proposes that the interpretation of vocatives requires correlating syntax and pragmatics in the interface and a vocative phrase is a functional projection bearing pragmatic features above the complementizer phrase layer (CP). By considering a speech act layer above the CP, vocatives, interjections and other pragmatic phenomena can be studied syntactically.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • vocative particle
  • vocatives
  • complementizer phrase layer
  • speech act layer
  • pragmatics-syntax interface