با توجه به چالش برانگیز بودن مسئله استعاره، تا کنون نظریات مختلفی در باب ترجمه پذیری، ترجمه ناپذیری و شیوههای مختلف ترجمه استعاره به ویژه در خصوص آیات قرآنی مطرح شده است. هدف از نگارش مقاله حاضر آن است تا ضمن مروری بر مفهوم استعاره، و معرفی نظریات پیتر نیومارک در مورد تکنیکهای برگردان استعاره، مقایسه ای تحلیلی میان نحوه عملکرد دو مترجم شهیر فرانسوی قرآن کریم در قرن بیستم، رژیس بلاشر و ژاک برک، در محدوده آیات منتخب سوره بقره ارائه دهد.
مطالعه موردی آیات منتخب نشان میدهد که دو مترجم علی رغم قرار گرفتن در چارچوبهای زمانی-مکانی یکسان و دارا بودن افق اعتقادی و پیش فرضهای ایدئولوژیک نزدیک به هم، از شیوههای متنوع و متفاوتی در برگردان استعارات استفاده کرده اند. این تفاوت سبک از سویی ریشه در اختلاف در برداشت و درک دو مترجم از مفهوم آیات داشته، و از سوی دیگر نشانگر تفاوت سلایق ساختاری آنها و میزان وفاداریشان به متن اصلی میباشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A comparative study of some mtaphors translations of Surah Baqarh in French translations from the perspective of Newmark (Case study: Regis Blachere and Jacques Berque’s translations)
Given the challenging nature of metaphor’s issue, so far, there have been various views on translatability, translatability, and different ways of translating metaphors, especially regarding the quranic verses.
In this paper, we review the metaphor, and introduce the methods of Peter Newmark on metaphor translation, and we try to present an analytical comparison between the way in which two well-known French translators of the Holy Quran in the twentieth century, Regis Blachere and Jacques Berque, operate within the scope of selected verses of Baqarah Surah.
The case study of selected verses shows that the both of translators, despite being in the same time-space frameworks and having similar horizon of belief and ideological definitions, have used varied and different methods to translate metaphors. This difference of style can be explained by a difference in comprehension and interpretation of the verses, and also by the differences in structural choices and their loyalty to the original text.
When metaphor is used in sacred texts, it becomes more and more important, and the need for precision in its translation also increases. The Holy Quran, the divine book and the miracle of the last divine prophet, contains various kinds of metaphors in many of its verses. To date, numerous translations of this eternal word have been presented in various languages around the world, and each of the translators has endeavored to provide, as far as possible, an acceptable translation with the aim and motivation in question. But, not all of these translations are at the same level of loyalty to the content and structure of the reference text.
Two examples of the french translations, which can be considered due to their literary features and privileges, belong to Regis Blachere and Jacques Berque. Theses versions have been selected because of the translator's sufficient mastery on the Arabic language and their familiarity with Islamic culture and customs. This has made the two translators translate the Qur'an directly from Arabic into French, unlike some others, and use their meta-linguistic knowledge to understand the meaning of metaphors.
The Regis Blachere’s and Jacques Berque’s French translations of the holy Quran have been respectively published in 1950 and 1990 by Maisonneuve & Larose and Sindbad Publishers, and have been reviewed and reprinted several times so far. For this research, we selected some of Baqarah Surah’s verses, and in particular, we focus on verses from this surah that have been adorned with metaphorical arrays to see which strategies and technics are followed by Blachere and Berques for translating them. Surely all the verses containing metaphors by Baqarah do not fall within the scope of an article, that’s why after careful examination of all the verses, we have provided a detailed analysis of the thirteen samples, but the number of verses cited or compared to them is more than twenty-five. Of course, selected verses have been attempted to be varied in content and form.
We used descriptive-analytic research methodology based on library tools and within the framework of Peter Newmark's Theories.
Studying and evaluating French translations of Regis Blachere and Jacques Berque from the Holy Quran, in the selected statistical population of Surat al-Baqara, shows that despite belonging to similar time-space horizons, the two translators have adopted different ways of converting Quranic metaphors from Arabic to French. Blachere's translation appeared right in the middle of the twentieth century, and Berque's translation at the end of the same century, both published in French. Neither of the two were Muslim translators, but both spent part of their lives in Arab-speaking, Muslim-majority countries, and are well acquainted with the linguistic, cultural and indigenous data of the Islamic regions.
They did not follow a unified approach to translate the many metaphors, but for each metaphor, according to the context of the verse, the type of metaphor, and the concepts embodied in it, they have used one of the conventional strategies. Blachere has acted in Newark's first, second, fourth and sixth strategies in translating Baqarah metaphors, and Berque has used the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth strategies.
The main reason for this difference in technique selection may be the difference between the interpretation and interpretation of the verses.
In fact, most verses with metaphors contain words with multiple primary and secondary meanings. Therefore, each translator can infer one of the possible meanings. The interpretation and consequently his translation of the verse, should be based on the meaning intended. In some cases, translators have come up with equivalent vocabulary in the French language, which also has the multifaceted and semantic meaning, so the metaphorical state of the metaphor has been thus fully preserved.
This method seems to provide the most appropriate solution for translating the metaphor, but it can only be used if there is an equivalent to these features and specifications in the target language. In other cases, It is useful to replace the original metaphor with another one in the target language containing the same semantic load and equivalent concept.