مقدمه: پژوهش حاضر جهت خط ذهنی زمان را تحت تاثیر استعاره-های زبانی و جهت راه رفتن، جهت نوشتاری زبان فارسی، و جهت نوشتاری ریاضیات و اعداد از منظر استعارههای مفهومی لیکاف و جانسون مورد بررسی قرار میدهد. استعارههای مفهومی به ما کمک میکنند تا مفاهیم انتزاعی را از طریق مفاهیم عینی دریابیم. به عنوان مثال استعارۀ "زمان به مثابه فضا" بر این فرضیه استوار است که ما مفهوم انتزاعی چون زمان را از مفهوم عینی چون فضا الگو برداری میکنیم و آن را در ذهن و زبان خود مفهوم سازی مینماییم.
روش: در این تحقیق از 3 نوع آزمون زبانی و غیرزبانی به روش تجربی استفاده شده است. تعداد 137 دانشجوی زن و مرد با محدوه سنی 18 تا 30 سال از دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خرمشهر و دانشگاه علوم پزشکی آبادان در این آزمونها شرکت نمودند.
یافتهها: درصد و میانگین بسامد وقوع نمونههای مورد نظر جستار حاضر نشان داد که محورهای افقی جانبی راست به چپ برگرفته از جهت نوشتاری زبان فارسی؛ محور افقی سهمی پشت سر به روبرو برگرفته از جهت راه رفتن و استعارههای زبانی، و جهت نگاه؛ و محور افقی جانبی چپ به راست برگرفته از جهت نوشتاری اعداد و ریاضیات مهمترین منابع اقتباسی مفاهیم انتزاعی زمان در زبان فارسی قلمداد میگردند.
نتیجه گیری: خط ذهنی زمان در گویشوران زبان فارسی تحت تاثیر تجارب شناختی و ذهن بدنمند آنها بسیار تحت تاثیر فرهنگ و زبان می باشد. همچنین نوع آزمایش تاثیر به سزایی در جهتمندی خط ذهنی زمان در مفاهیم مورد آزمایش نشان داد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Representation of Mental Timeline in the Language Structure of Persian Speakers
Introduction: One of the metaphors that has gained lots of attention is “Time is Space”. This Metaphor is based on a theory that we perceive an abstract concept like time through a concrete concept like space and conceptualize it in our mind and language. Consequently, this research attempts to examine space-time mapping in Persian based on conceptual metaphor theory proposed by Johnson & Lakoff to find out temporal frames of reference and their sources in Persian. To describe the relations, people have to choose a frame of reference, which is a coordinated system to describe relations between the movements of objects or events. Different cultures and speech communities have different construal of time. Three frames of references to be investigated in Persian are adopted based on Levison’s (2006) model: Absolute, Intrinsic, and Relative. Other frames of references to be examined are horizontal axes including sagittal (front to back and back to front) adopted from looking direction and linguistic metaphors which depict that future is front and past is back and lateral axis: right to left consistent with Persian writing/reading direction or left to right consistent with mathematics writing direction; however, vertical axis includes up-down and bottom-up axis as well as sagittal axis front to back and back to front.
Methodology: As a result, three tasks were designed for 137 male and female students ranging from 18 to 30years of age at Islamic Azad University of Khorramshahr and Abadan Medical University.
Task 1: Arrangment of temporal stickers/tokens
Four time expressions including morning, afternoon, evening, and night were labeled on four stickers respectively. Participants had to arrange them on the table. No reference point was given.
In another similar task yesterday, today, and tomorrow were labeled on three stickers. Again, they had to arrange then on the table, however, ‘today’ was the reference point.
Task 2: Picture arrangement
Participants were asked to arrange seven sets of three or four pictures that illustrate the growing stages of living beings such as chicken, beans, and human, as well as events like seasons, meals, building a tower, and presidents. The pictures had to be arranged on a table in sequence from the earliest to the latest stage. Meals, which are breakfast, lunch, and dinner, were given a reference point with lunch.
Task 3: Co-speech gesture
Two basic temporal concepts were chosen to examine frames of reference in Persian: tomorrow and yesterday. Participants were asked to use body gestures to demonstrate yesterday and tomorrow.
Task 1: Arrangement of temporal stickers/tokens
Two arrangments for both yesterday, today, and tomorrow as well as morning, afternoon, evening, and night illustrate that horizontal-lateral right to left pattern has the highest frequency of occurrence which is compatible with Persian writing direction. This frame of reference also demonstrates a timeline where right is earlier and left is later.
In addition, both tasks demonstrate an absolute frame of reference.
Task 2: Picture arrangement
All the seven task results point out that horizontal-lateral right to left pattern, that is %61.62, has the highest frequency of occurrence which is compatible with Persian writing direction. Like task 2 this frame of reference also demonstrates a timeline where right is earlier and left is later. Meals had an intrinsic and the other 6 tasks had an absolute frame of reference.
Task 3: co-speech gesture
Horizontal-lateral right to left pattern gesture compatible with Persian writing direction, that is 46%, were used to act out future gesture; and horizontal-sagittal gesture incompatible with looking direction, walking direction, and linguistic metaphor were uesd to demonstrate yesterday.
Both tasks also show an absolute frame of reference.
Samples’ Percentage and frequency of occurrence illustrated that lateral axis from right to left adopted from Persian writing direction; sagittal axis back to front adopted from walking direction, looking direction, linguistic metaphors; lateral axis from left to right adopted from mathematics writing direction are the main sources of adoption of abstract temporal concepts in Persian. In addition, absolute frame of reference was the major frame of reference in all tasks. Intrinsic and relative frames of references were also respectively used by the participants.
Conclusion: This research implied that the adopted frame of reference and the type of sagittal or lateral axes are strongly influenced by the type of task, pattern and design of the experiment, the given concepts, language and linguistic metaphors, and cultural artifacts. Although biological evolution may have laid the groundwork for the basic spatial construal of temporal experience in the broadest sense, it is cultural evolution that has determined its complexities and specificities.