نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی گروه زبان شناسی همگانی دانشگاه جهرم

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه پیام نور تهران

3 عضو شورای تخصصی کارشناسی ارشد زبانشناسی

4 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به بررسی و مطالعۀ صفات ‌مرکب زبان فارسی از دیدگاه نظریۀ آمیختگی مفهومی می‌پردازد. روش پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی و شیوۀ گردآوری داده‌ها پیکره‌بنیاد است. داده‌های پژوهش، حاصلِ جمع‌آوری صفات مرکب(400 صفت) از پایگاه دادگان زبان فارسی می‌باشد. هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین فرایندهای شناختی دخیل در شکل‌گیری صفات مرکب‌ زبان فارسی(استعاره، مجاز و استعاره-مجاز) و مشخص نمودن میزان خلاقیت فرایند ترکیب با توجه به تقسیم‌بندی‌ بنسز(Benczes 2006) و تعامل میان درون‌مرکز و برون‌مرکز بودن، همسو با نتایج بنسز(Benczes 2006) است. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که در ساخت صفات مرکب زبان فارسی میزان بسامد استعاره از همه بیشتر و پس از آن استعاره-مجاز و در جایگاه سوم مجاز قرار دارد. به اعتقاد بنسز هرچه در ترکیب‌ها ارتباط استعاری قوی‌تر باشد، میزان خلاقیت به‌ کار رفته بیشتر خواهد ‌بود و به سطح انتزاعی معنا افزوده می-شود. بر اساس یافته‌های این پژوهش به نظر می‌رسد که گویشوران زبان فارسی تمایل بیشتری به استفاده از معانی استعاری برای تولید و درک صفات مرکب دارند. علاوه بر این از نظر میزان خلاقیت نیز فرایند آمیختگی استعاره-مجاز از بالاترین بسامد برخوردار بود. همچنین تعداد 13 الگوی ساختواژی نیز از تحلیل ساختار واژشناختی داده‌ها بدست آمد که 3 الگو نیز از بالاترین بسامد برخوردار بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها: صفات مرکب زبان فارسی، آمیختگی مفهومی، استعاره، مجاز، خلاقیت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

the study of Persian compound adjectives on the basis of conceptual blending theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahar Pourshahian 1
  • Arezoo Najafian 2
  • Belghis Rovshan 3
  • mehdi sabzevari 4

1 Fuculty member of Jahrom University

2 faculty memeber of PNU university

3 Member of the specialized council of the master of linguistics

4 faculty member of PNU university

چکیده [English]

Abstract

This research analyses Persian Compound Adjectives based on conceptual blending theory. The research method is descriptive-analytic and the data gathering method is corpus-based. The research data are all the compound adjectives (400 adjectives) available in Persian language data base (related to dr. Asi). The goal of this research is to study Persian compound adjectives due to Benscez̕s cognitive view (2006) regarding the interaction between exocentric and endocentric compounds. In this research we gathered our data from Persian language data base accessible in the site addressed: www.pdlb.ac.ir. After gathering data, we determine the occurrence frequency of each datum from the word list available in the data base. Then we analyses all the data according to Benscez̕ view and endocentric-exocentric compound principles. There are three types of cognitive operations. One is metaphor, another is metonymy and the third is metaphor- metonymy. The highest frequency operation is also determined. In this paper we also determine creativity of compounds. Like Benscez̕ s conclusions the data analysis showed that, in Persian adjective compounds, metaphor has the highest frequency among others and after that, metaphor-metonymy has the second rank and at the last is the metonymy. According to Benscez̕s belief the more the metaphoric relation is stronger in compounds the more creativity is appeared and the abstract level is increased. We also classify all the data according to morphological patterns. There have been thirteen morphological patterns which three of them have the most frequency among others. Determining the morphological patterns is based on Tabatabaee̕s view (1382). The achievements of this research show that Persian language users seem to have very much more willing to use metaphoric concepts in producing and comprehending compound adjectives. Creating meaning through the metaphoric mapping, can help us to understand the abstract concepts more easily. Too much frequent elaboration of metaphoric concepts shows the creativity and dynamism of Persian language. Also it has been shown that the most creative and common operation is metaphor-metonymy in Persian compound adjectives.
Fauconnier and Turner (2003) determined mental blending spaces and showed the conceptual blending theory with four-parts patterns. In their opinions mental spaces are small conceptual packages that appear through speaking and thinking. These four spaces are: 1. Input space 2. Output space 3. General space 4. Blending space. The table below shows all our analytical processes occurred on some selected data for sample.















Table1-the morphological-cognitive analysis of compound adjectives

Compound adjective metaphor metonymy Metaphor-metonymy Morphological pattern frequency
1 farxdideh * Adjective+noun:exocentric 1
2 zabanbasteh * Noun+object adjective: exocentric 1
3 dodel * Adjective+noun: exocentric 1
4 pashnehboland * Adjective+noun: exocentric 1
5 shadkam * Noun+noun: exocentric 1
6 divdel * Noun+noun: exocentric 2
7 shotorkineh * Noun+noun: exocentric 2
8 Mardomdar * Noun+ subject adjective:exocentric 1
9 samanbar * Noun+ subject adjective:exocentric 2
10 zabanborideh * Noun+object adjective: exocentric 1
11 tizro * adjective+ subject adjective:exocentric 1


Now we consider analyzing the data according to conceptual blending theory which shows 4 mental spaces for each compound adjective. For example, for "pashnehboland":

















Input space1




Human feature mute
special ability
speaking ability


human like animal


in prisoned
without speaking ability








Digram 1. Conceptual blending of compound adjective "zabanasteh"



Conceptual blending Operations:
After analyzing compound adjectives, they are divided to three kinds of conceptual blending operations which are shown in the table below.






Frequency percentage frequency Conceptual operation
50% 220 metaphor
30% 23 metonymy
47% 155 blending



Digram2- conceptual blending frequency



Digram3- conceptual blending frequency




Conclusions:
From analyzing our data morphologically, there has been 13 morphological patterns.
Among all of these 13 patterns, 3 of them have the highest frequency which are shown according to highest into lowest:
1.noun+subject adjective
2.adjective+noun
3.noun+object adjective

The frequency of conceptual blending operations after analyzing data semantically are:
1.metaphor frequency 50%
2.metonymy frequency 3%
3.blending frequency 47%


As it is obvious metaphor has the highest frequency. According to this fact that metaphor has the highest frequency, we can have concluded that Persian speakers are very much willing to use metaphors and they have no problem in understanding metaphors. Creating meanings through metaphor, make Persian speakers to understand abstract concepts easier. This common use of metaphors, shows the creativity and dynamism of Persian language. Also it is shown that the creativity of metaphor-metonymy is the most among other conceptual blending operations. We also concluded that the more metaphorical relations between compound adjectives elements are increased the more creativity is appeared.

As it is obvious metaphor has the highest frequency. According to this fact that metaphor has the highest frequency, we can have concluded that Persian speakers are very much willing to use metaphors and they have no problem in understanding metaphors. Creating meanings through metaphor, make Persian speakers to understand abstract concepts easier. This common use of metaphors, shows the creativity and dynamism of Persian language. Also it is shown that the creativity of metaphor-metonymy is the most among other conceptual blending operations. We also concluded that the more metaphorical relations between compound adjectives elements are increased the more creativity is appeared.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Persian Compound Adjectives
  • Conceptual blending
  • Metaphor
  • metonymy
  • Creativity