پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناخت و شناساندن روشهای انتقال مفهوم ضربالمثلها از خلال تطبیق-های زبانی و ارائه روشهای کاربردیتر در ترجمه ضربالمثلها و با استفاده از روش «توصیفی-تحلیلی» و «کتابخانهای» در صدد آن بود که بداند رویکرد اصلی مترجمان عربی و فارسی دو نمایشنامه «هملت» و «رام کردن زن سرکش» چیست و چه زمان و در چه حالتی به ترجمه تحت اللفظی، جایگزین سازی با ضربالمثل یا ترجمهی تفصیلی آزاد یک ضربالمثل، روی آوردهاند؟ در پاسخ به این پرسشها ابتدا «فرهنگ ضربالمثلهای انگلستان در قرن شانزدهم و هفدهم» به عنوان منبع اصلی پژوهش در نظر گرفته شد و سپس ضربالمثلهای به کار رفته در دو نمایشنامه با استناد به آن استخراج و در ذیل ضربالمثل در دو بخش تعریب و ترجمه ارائه شده است. واژگان و عبارات به کار رفته در برگردانها به عنوان دادههای اصلی پژوهش در دو سطح واژگانی- نحوی و دلالی با یکدیگر مقایسه و توصیف شدهاند. در انتها گزارشی از رویکردهای مترجمان در برگردان ضرب-المثلها بر اساس ویژگیهای مذکور در تعریف جامع ضربالمثل (تعریف منتخب این پژوهش) ارائه شده است. یافتههای پژوهش تفاوت معناداری را بین برگردان مترجمان عربی و فارسی نشان نداد. لفظگرایی، رویکرد غالب مترجمان است و برای گرهها و نقطههای دشوار مفهومی- معنایی، پانوشت نیز بر آن افزوده گردیده است. نارسایی مفهومی تنها در برگردان تعداد کمی از ضربالمثل-های مربوط به گروه ضدالمثلها دیده شده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Comparative Study between Proverbs of the Two Plays of Shakespeare and Their Arabic and Persian Translations: "Eight Translations of Hamlet" and "Four Translations of The Taming of the Shrew"
The present study, using the "descriptive-analytical" method, aims at identifying the methods of communicating the sense of proverbs through linguistic comparisons in order to provide more practical methods in translation of proverbs.
Utilizing the Arabic and Persian translations of two Shakespeare’s plays "Hamlet" and "The Taming of the Shrew", the authors of this study seek to know how and in what ways and to what extent, the translators been able to communicate the sense of English proverbs and when and in what way they have employed literal, free or other types of translation.
1.1 Shakespeare's Use of Proverbs
Shakespeare has used many proverbial similes to illustrate the characters in the play and to have a greater influence on the audience.
Shakespeare's conversion of a proverbe into an anti-proverb presents a major challenge to translators. Translation of anti-proverb, however, is far more challenging than the proverbial one. Because in addition to its proverbial features, the humorous dimension is added to it.
2. Methods and Techniques
Viewing the translation of the proverbs in a formalist way, it can be seen that translators have chosen one of the following three techniques to meet the challenges of translation:
Only 6 of the 140 proverbs found in the survey data were abandoned untranslated by some translators. This inaccuracy, which may have been intentional or inadvertent, was found in only 4 of the 12 translations.
Footnotes are of the methods that some translators have used to explain proverbs and the cultural traits in them.In general the number of footnotes in Arabic translations exceeds the Persian ones. Most footnotes have deciphered the mystery in the proverbs, and as a result, these proverbs have become more explicit than the proverbial ones.
2.3 Cultural (Proverbial) Equivalence
Cultural equivalence means finding a proverb from the culture of the target language and using it as a proverbial equivalence for the source language. Of all the translations, there are only three cases that have used this technique.
Translators' approach to proverbs can be divided into four categories: literal translation, defamiliarization, lexical enhancement, and Arabicism.
3.1 Literal Translation
The dominant approach in Arabic and Persian translations of the proverbs in these two works is the literalist approach and the translation unit is the word. In translating the literary devices (similes, metaphors, and Kenning or Metonymy) in the proverbs, translators have replaced the literal word from the target language with the word from the source language rather than trying to replace the structure or concept from the target language with that of the source language. Although there have been cases where translators have replaced structure or concept, the number is far below the literal replacement.
In this approach, the translators have relied on the appeal of the audience rather than emphasizing expressiveness of the concept and have considered the audience's knowledge of rhetoric as a must. It is as if in an unwritten contract, an agreement was reached between the translator and the reader in which the translator merely puts the word's identity in the footnote and transfers them to the target language with the same clothing they were wearing in the source language. It is up to the reader to take on the hassle of communicating with them and removing the feeling of strangeness from their faces.
Although in the Arabic language most of the semantic burden rests on the vocabulary (and a word can be a translation of several English words), there is also a great deal of lexical increase in Arabic translations. What is important in this approach is that women translators have used more words in their translations than men in both languages (viz. Arabic and Persian).
Through viewing one of the Persian proverb dictionaries, it is easy to see that, with the exception of Qur'anic and hadith proverbs , the number of Arabic words used in proverbs is very low. But in the present study, the approach of the Persian translators' (except Adib) to translating English proverbs is in contrast to the approach of the makers of Persian proverbs. These translators have used many of the Arabic vocabulary and its features such as the nunation (tanwin), and consequently a greater lexical diversity is found in Persian translations.
Comparing the methods and approaches used in translations of English proverbs by Arabic translators with those of Persian ones, the following results are obtained:
• Due to their cultural affinity, Arabic and Farsi have a relatively similar proverbial competency in translation.
• In translating proverbs, translators have inevitably an author-oriented translation to preserve the consistency of text and more adequately mirror the Shakespeare's ideas and expression.
• They have translated the proverbs with the least cultural change, which has resulted in the domination of the culture of the superior (source) language over the inferior (target) language that is the superior language imposes its features to the inferior language. However, in some cases the literary richness of the target language has also increased through the creation of new images.
• In translating the proverbs, the translators were more committed to the text than to the spirit of the work. This has in some cases removed the spirit of humor from the literal body and destroyed the dynamics of the text. In fact, most translators have translated the external language and have regarded the inner language (humor) of the text untranslatable.
• The conceptual flaw in the translations is mostly related to the cases where the author has used one or two words of the proverb as the whole one or made changes to the proverb. Therefore, the translator makes no sense due to the lack of knowledge about the whole proverb and will inevitably either erase it, or by translating it literally, that transfers the ambiguity into the target language. Therefore, in translating the proverbs, dictionary information is not enough and the translator needs encyclopedic knowledge to know the whole proverb.
Keywords: Shakespeare, Proverb, Anti-Proverbs, Translation.