نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران

2 گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی ، مشهد، ایران

3 عضو هیئت علمی گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران

4 عضو هیئت علمی گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

اهمیت آموزش زبان زمینه‌ساز پژوهش‌های متعدد بوده و براین‌اساس، رویکردهایی پیشنهاد شده است؛ از جمله کاربست ادبیات در آموزش زبان. عمدة این پژوهش‌ها، معطوف به محتوای فرهنگی و استفاده مستقیم یا بازنویسی متون ادبی است اما آنچه هدف این جستار است الگوپذیری از چهارچوب زبانی این متون برای تولید محتوای آموزشی است. این که کدام متن ادبی الگوی مناسبی برای آموزش زبان ارائه می‌کند و چه ویژگی‌ دارد که فرایند یادگیری را تسهیل می‌کند، مسئله این پژوهش است. اصالت متن و داشتن زبان قابل فهم از اولین مؤلفه‌هایی است که محققان این حوزه برای یک متن آموزشی برشمرده‌اند. بر این مبنا شاهنامه فردوسی به عنوان یک متن اصیل و معتبر که نقشی مؤثر در حفظ زبان فارسی داشته و نسبت به دیگر متن‌ها تقدم زمانی و زبانی زنده دارد، مرجع این پژوهش قرار گرفت. به نظر می‌رسد بررسی روابط واژگانی شاهنامه، بتواند الگوی مناسبی در تدوین محتوا وآموزش زبان فارسی به‌دست دهد. بررسی توصیفی- تحلیلی روابط واژگانی در نمونة آماری نشان داد نزدیک به 40% واژگان دارای پیوندهای دوتایی‌اند که نیمی از آن‌ها خارج از تعریف هم‌آیندها قرار می‌گیرند، ازاین‌رو عبارت «دوگانه‌های واژگانی» پیشنهاد می‌شود. این روابط واژگانی، به صورت ناخودآگاه، با فعال کردن دانش پیشین واژگانی و دایرة المعارفی، مخاطب را در درک متن یاری می‌نماید. نتایج آموزش زبان بر پایه دوگانه‌های واژگانی و به‌کارگیری آن در یادگیری واژه و درک مطلب نیز نشان داد تفاوت معناداری بین عملکرد دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل وجود دارد و تأیید می‌کند کاربست دوگانه‌های واژگانی در افزایش میزان یادگیری زبان‌آموزان مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Lexical binaries in Ferdowsi’s Shahname and their use in teaching Farsi

نویسندگان [English]

  • Salehe Ghazanfari Moghaddam 1
  • Mohammad Jafar Yahaghi 2
  • Reza Pishghadam 3
  • Shima Ebrahimi 4

1 PhD. candidate Department of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of letters & humanities, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor of Department of Persian Language and Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Iran

3 Professor Department of English Language and Literature Faculty of Letters and Humanities Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad

4 Assistant Professor of Department of Persian Language and Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

چکیده [English]

Lexical binaries in Ferdowsi’s Shahname and their use in teaching Farsi
Authors:
Salehe Gazanfari Moghaddam, PhD. Candidate in Persian Language & Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Sghm_81@yahoo.com
Mohammad Jafar Yahaghi, Professor of Department of Persian Language and Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Ferdows@um.ac.ir; mgyahaghi@yahoo.co.uk
Reza Pishghadam, Professor of Department of English Language and Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. pishghadam @ um.ac.ir
Shima Ebrahimi, Assistant Professor of Department of Persian Language and Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. shimaebrahimi @ um.ac.ir
Received:2019/08/06
Accepted: 2020/02/02
Extended Abstract:
The significance of teaching language has motivated various studies in which many procedures have been suggested like applying literature in language teaching. Most of these studies have focused on cultural issues and the direct use or rewriting of literary texts. Yet, the aim of this study was to use the language framework applied in these texts to produce educational material. The concern of this study was to observe which literary text could provide a suitable pattern for language teaching and what features they should have to ease the learning process. The authenticity and comprehensibility are the first factors that have been suggested. Accordingly, Ferdowsi’s Shahname was selected for analysis as its authenticity and validity and also its effective role in maintaining Farsi. In comparison to other texts, it is much older and its language is steel comprehensible. Also, it seems that by investigating lexical combinations in Shahname, the way it preserves the lexis can be shown. This descriptive-analytic investigation of lexical relations in the statistical sample shows about 40% of the lexes have dual combinations, half of which are excluded from the general description of collocations. Therefore, the phrase “binary lexes” was suggested here. Additionally, about 70% of binary combinations are meaningful types, this means that the reader is dealing with a great number of binary lexes in the text and the reader has tried to understand the words and content by activating his former knowledge about lexes. This feature can help in designing educational material for language teaching.
New perspectives and attitudes towards teaching language and its skills have led to the proposal of new challenges and approaches. Using literature in language teaching is just one of these approaches and based on this theory, literary language with all its special features attracts learners and in addition to providing the cultural background of the language, it helps the learner to understand language on multiple semantic levels while it also increases their linguistic awareness which in turn increases their language proficiency and ability in interpreting sentences (Lazar, 1993).
Various studies have been conducted on the use of literature in teaching Farsi, which often focus on the function of literature in transmitting cultural matters but some have also examined the impact of literature on enhancing the learners’ language understanding and proficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of literature as context and framework for teaching educational content, which has been the focus of few studies based on the researchers’ knowledge. Accordingly, the research questions were: 1) Which literary texts are suitable for designing language teaching materials? And 2) What other language features of the text are useful in language teaching?

For this, it was required to refer to authentic and reliable texts whose language was also meaningful for the audience (Mishan, 2005; Tomlinson, 2011). With this hypothesis that Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh has had a unique role in the survival and enhancement of Farsi, and it also holds an active, reliable and authentic language, in this study we tried to investigate one of its linguistic features in language teaching. As learning vocabulary is a significant step in all major approaches (Bottom-up approach, Top-down approach, Interactive approach) in language teaching and various solutions have been suggested to ease the process (like lexical network, collocations), it seems that investigating the lexical relations in Shahnameh could also be a good framework and contribute to designing educational material.
For this purpose, after reviewing the related studies and background as well as recognizing the theoretical foundations, parts of the Shahnameh (Volume 1 through 5 …) were selected randomly. In the descriptive-analytical method, the lexical relations of meaning (reckoning, confrontation, contradiction, proportion and association), structural (spatial and syntactic), and phonetic in all terms were extracted and categorized. The reliability of the data was verified by a group of graduates and PhD students in Persian language and literature.
Results showed that lexical relations in Shahnameh shows that there is a dual link (beyond the definition of the collocation) in a vast volume of text (nearly half of it), which along with other lexical relations almost places the whole text within a network as there are no words left aside without having any connection with other words. This feature makes the language of the text available and understandable to the reader. The authors proposed the term "lexical binaries " and believe that this feature could be used to develop Persian language teaching resources and to facilitate the learning of learners.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lexical binaries
  • Ferdowsi’s Shahname
  • Teaching Farsi