پژوهش حاضر به بررسی ماهیت دوگانه در مفهومسازی استعاری عشق در دو حوزهی عواطف و روابط انسانی در زبان فارسی با رویکردی شناختی و بر اساس نظریهی استعارهی مفهومی میپردازد. برای این مطالعه، 15 رمان فارسی از پایگاه دادگان زبان فارسی پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی انتخاب شد. برای انتخاب کلیدواژههای مرتبط با مفهوم عشق بهمنظور جستجو در پیکره نیز از پایگاه فارسنت آزمایشگاه پردازش زبان طبیعی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی و فرهنگ طیفی زبان فارسی استفاده شد. پس از استخراج واژههای مرتبط با عشق، سه واژهی پربسامدتر عشق، محبت و علاقه بهعنوان کلیدواژه برای جستجو در پیکره انتخاب شد و در نهایت، 63 حوزهی مبدأ برای مفهومسازی استعاری عشق به دست آمد. برای مقایسهی این حوزههای مبدأ با حوزههای مبدأ روابط انسانی، کلیدواژهی ازدواج، بهعنوان یک رابطهی انسانی پیشنمونه، در کل پیکرهی پایگاه دادگان زبان فارسی جستجو شد و پس از بررسی عبارات استعاری، 26 حوزهی مبدأ برای مفهومسازی استعاری ازدواج بهدست آمد. مقایسهی حوزههای مبدأ عشق و ازدواج نشان داد که سه حوزهی خاص روابط انسانی یعنی پیوند، جنگ و قرارداد، بخشی از حوزههای مبدأ مشترک میان مفهوم عشق و ازدواج هستند. این موضوع ماهیت دوگانهی عشق را در زبان فارسی تأیید میکند. سپس این حوزهها با حوزههای مبدأ عواطف بنیادین خشم در اثر زورورز و همکاران (Zoorvarz et al., 2014) و شادی در اثر صراحی و عموزاده (Sorahi, and Amouzadeh, 2014) مقایسه و مشخص شد که این سه حوزه در میان حوزههای مبدأ آن عواطف قرار ندارند و احتمالا ماهیت دوگانه در بین عواطف ویژهی عشق است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Double Nature of Metaphorical Conceptualization of Love in Persian: A Cognitive Approach
This article aims to conduct a cognitive corpus-based study on the double nature in metaphorical conceptualization of Love in two metaphorical systems of emotions and human relationships in Persian language. In order for that, 15 Persian novels were selected from Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies' Persian Language Data Base (PLDB). To choose love-related keywords for being looked up in the corpus, Shahid Beheshti University's FarsNet (a Persian WordNet) was used as well as a Persian thesaurus. After listing the word family of Love, three more frequent synonyms of Love were used to be looked up in the corpus, and 62 source domains for metaphorical conceptualization of love were detected. To compare these source domains with the source domains of human relationships, Marriage, as a prototype of human relationships was searched in the PLDB. Studying metaphorical expressions showed that 26 source domains existed for metaphorical conceptualization of Marriage. Comparing the source domains of Love and Marriage showed that 3 human-relationship-specific source domains of Bond, War and Contract, among others, were the common source domains for metaphorical conceptualization of both Love and Marriage. This confirms the double-nature of Love in Persian. Finally, these common source domains were compared with the source domains of basic emotions of Anger and Happiness and there happened to be no common source domain between love and these two emotions, resulting in Love being probably the only emotion with a double nature.
1. Theoretical Framework
This research has the Conceptual Theory of Metaphor, first suggested by Lakoff and Johnson in their book, Metaphors We Live By (1980), as its theoretical framework. According to this theory, metaphor is understanding an abstract concept with another, concrete one. Emotions are very extensive human experiences, and since human cognition can affect emotions, linguistic study of emotions can contribute to a better grasp of human cognition. In this article, the source domains of Love and Marriage are presented separately. Then, the common source domains between the two are listed. We will see that the three source domains of Bond, War and Contract, the specific human relationship source domains, are common source domains between Love and Marriage, confirming the double nature of Love.
In the present study, to find the conceptual metaphors of Love, three love-related words were searched in the corpus, namely 15 Persian novels. Then, the relevant sentences were investigated one by one, and the expressions in which Love had been metaphorically conceptualized were studied, and 63 source domains were listed, and the same was done for metaphorical conceptualization of Marriage and 26 source domains were found. While, usually, intuition is used to determine the source domains in linguistic metaphor studies, this study, for the first time in cognitive studies of metaphor in Persian language, used the corpus itself to determine the source domains rather than the intuition because, more often than not, linguists don’t agree with each other in terms of which source domains represent which target domains. Here, when a source domain could not be determined easily, instead of referring to intuition, the collocations of that word were looked up in the corpus, and the most frequent concrete concept was chosen as the source domain.
Then, the two lists of source domains were compared, showing 18 common source domains. From among these common source domains, three source domains of Bond, War and Contract showed meaningful correspondence to Love source domains. By 'meaningful', we mean the source domains that can prove the double nature of Love because comparing metaphorical conceptualization of every two concepts is likely to show such correspondences. However, Bond, War and Contract are specific source domains of human relationships as they cannot exist without two active sides. To make sure that these three source domains are specific to Love, and not other emotions, they were cross-checked with the findings of two studies on metaphorical conceptualization of Anger and Happiness. Lack of any commonality between the meaningful source domains of Love and the source domains of Anger and Happiness proves that this double nature is specific to Love and not any other emotion.
This article showed that in Persian, like English, Love has a double nature in terms of metaphorical conceptualization in that it shows the characteristics of emotions and human relationships at the same time. The novel usage of corpus in this study was done for the first time in Persian language studies of metaphor. Findings of this kind help researchers get closer to the relationship between different metaphorical systems which in turn facilitates our knowledge of how metaphors are produced and perceived in human languages.