ساخت و معنای غالب واژهها به کاربرد، نقش و اهمیتی بر میگردد که برای کاربران آن در زمان نخستین داشته است و شماری واژهها هم در طول تاریخ یک زبان به دلایلی از زبان دیگر وام گرفته شده که این فرایند یکی از ویژگیهای زبانی است. بنابر این فرایند و در طی مهاجرت اَریهها به فلات ایران و جایگزین شدن به جای تمدنهای میانرودانی دگرگونی هایی در زبانهای ایرانی باستان پدید آمد و تاثیراتی از زبانهای میانرودانی باستان پذیرفتند. واژه "نوه" از جمله واژههایی است که شکل نخستین آن در هندواروپایی و اَریه ای آغازین بازسازی شده است. هدف از نوشتن مقاله این است که ساختار واژه نوه یا پور-پور را در کتیبه حاجی آباد شاپور اول بررسی نماییم و اینکه این واژه مرکب از چه نوع ساختار زبانی پیروی میکند. از این رو، روش کار نخست بررسی ساختار واژه نوه در دوران هندواروپایی و متون ایرانی باستان است و سپس ساخت دیگر آن را که به صورت "پور-پور" در کتبیه جاجی آباد است، با هم ساخت خود در متنهای میانرودانی مقایسه گردیده است تا به لحاظ ساختاری به تغییر شکل آن در دوران میانه زبان فارسی و تاثیرپذیری آن از زبانهای میانرودانی پی برده باشیم.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Puhrepuhr (Grandchild) in the Shahpur’s Inscription at Haji-Abad by Comparison with Mesopotamian Texts
Linguistic, historical, and geographical conditions suggest that a homogeneous communities settled in Eurasian and spoke to Proto-Indo-European language who began to expand around 4000 BCE. Mallory and some scholars believe that the Indo-Europeans homeland was in the arid steppe of the Pont-Caspian region. Having migrated the Indo-Iranian groups, they probably occupied somewhere in central Asia (a geographical parallel to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) from where some Iranians migrated to the Iran’s plateau, while the Indo-Aryans migrated to the subcontinent.
Grandson is one of the most controversial words in the Indo-European languages. This word is attested in most of Indo-European languages such as Celtic, Germanic, Italic, Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Greek, and Indo-Iranian. In the Proto-Indo-European languages *h2nep-ōt uses for ‘male descendant’ and h2nep-t-ih1/2 for ‘female descendant’. Buck believes that PIE *nepot probably consists of a compound of negative ‘ne’, and a form of stem, which is seen in Sanskrit pati-, Latin potis ‘able’, etc., and literally means ‘powerless’. Paul Horn quotes from Leumann about PIE nēpōt which means ‘orphan’, and Nourai regards nebh= ‘damp, humidity’ as a root, but Helmut Rix doesn’t think of nebh as the root of ‘nava’.
In the Old Indian nápāt means ‘grandson, son, descendant’, which changes into nápāt-am in the accusative case and nápāt-ah in the plural subjective case. In the Old Indian, apám nápāt compares with apąm napå in Avesta, which denotes ‘son of waters’. náptr̥ is the strong (vrdhi) stem of nápāt in the Old Indian, which originates from the rainy cloud . Napāt in the Old Avesta, and naptar, nafǝδar in the Young Avesta means ‘grandson and sisters’ son’. This word seems to use with the apąm to mean “grandson of waters” and originates from mountain, and naptya denotes ‘descendant’. Darius the Great applied napāt to describe his pedigree in Bihstun Inscription. Horn regards nápāt as Old Iranian word for nava in the New Persian, which has evolved into nevi in Kurdish, and nwasia in Baluchi of the Iranian’s dialects. The ‘nava’ or grandson is transcribed ‘nab’ into the Middle Persian, which originates in *napak of the Pahlavi Language.
The noun structure in the Sumerian language is based on nominal chains which include primary nouns such as dumu ‘son’, ‘child’, and a number of verbal roots employing as noun like ti ‘lie’, buru ‘hole’. The employing of primary nouns was relatively limited, and the Sumerian language, instead, applied a large number of nominal compounds. in the Sumerian language ‘dumu’ stands for “son”, and ‘dumu-ka’ for “grandson”, which Sumerian kings used it for their communications . A Sumerian king, Gudae C. 2141- 2122 B.C, who ruled over Lagash city and was a patron of the arts and as the builder of a new temple at Girsu. Sumerian texts in Gudae times indicate “grandson or dumu-ka”.
Nouns in the Akkadian language are declined in the three cases of singular: Nominative (stem-um), Genitive (stem-im), Accusative (stem-am), (dual: nom-?n, gen,acc -in; and plural: nom-?, gen, acc, -?) or the three status of rectus status, constructus status, and absolutus rectus. In the Old Akkadian languages, the words of dumu-ka, DUMU DUMU, TUR TUR, ablu abli, bin bini, and liblibi use for ‘grandson’ and we will describe them in the Akkadian lingual branches which all of them except dumu-ka take the reduplicated forms. There are some reduplicated words in the Old and Middle Akkadian language, and some words and prefixes use for the family members in the Kassite period such as mār= son; marat= daughter; TUR or Mar=son; TUR-SAL or Marat=daughter; TUR-TUR=grandson; KAL =adult; KAL-TUR-TUR=adult grandson.
Nouns have the three numbers of singular, dual and plural , and the three declinable case of the nominative, ending in –u; the genitive, ending in –i; and the accusative, ending in –a. among the survived texts of the Assyrian language we have a few words which applied for ‘grandson’ such as DUMU DUMU, TUR TUR, ablu abli, bin bini, liblibi. just like noun structure in the Assyrian language, nouns are declined in the three number of singular, plural and dual; and three cases of nominative, accusative and genitive, and compounds and reduplicated words coincide with those of the Assyrian language. In the Young Babylonian period we see the same of structure and reduplicated stem with genitive case such as ban bani ‘grandson’, lib-lib-bi, mār māri and other reduplicated word.
Nouns in the Aramaic language may be divided into two groups: 1-nouns with the Aramaic origin and loanwords adapted to Aramaic morphology 2- loanwords which have not been adapted to Aramaic morphology. The former groups with original Aramaic stock end for the most part in either (–a) or (–ta). The latter groups of loanwords are adapted to Aramaic morphology and they adopted this nominal inflection through the suffixing of the ending (–a) or, in a few cases, (-ta). In the Aramaic language and its sub-branches bar applies for "son, grandson", and bar bar in the same meaning. In addition, ben bane means a "son" which in the widest sense including "grandson"
Keywords: “Grandchild”; “son”; “Me