نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد چالوس، گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکدة زبان و ادبیات. مازندران، ایران

چکیده

در بسیاری از زبان‌های ایرانی، از جمله زبان فارسی، ستاک گذشتة شماری از فعل‌هایی که ریشه مختوم ‏به ‏r‏ پس از یک واکه، دارند در حالی به ‏‎ -štختم می‌شود که ‏r‏ از ساختمان آن‌ها حذف‌می‌گردد. نظر به ‏این که پایة بنیادین ستاک گذ‌شته‌ساز تکواژ ‏t‏- ‌است که طی فرایندهایی واژ-واجی، بصورت ‏تکواژگونه‌های مختلفی نمود پیدامی‌کند، نگارنده را بر آن داشت تا روند ساختار این تکواژ خاص را که ‏در مطالعات پیشین یا نادیده گرفته شده، یا بدرستی تبیین نشده، بررسی و تحلیل نماید. فرض مطالعه بر ‏این بوده که در خوشة همخوانی نخستی که /‏rstـ/ بوده، فرایند درهم‌شدگی‎ ‎‏[‏r‏]ی واکرفته در [‏s‏] صورت ‏گرفته و به پیدایی صدای واج‌شدة /‏š‏/ ‌انجامیده است. در شیوة پژوهش، با بهره‌گیری از الگوی ‏آواشناختی-محور در دگرگونی واجی شامل برنامه‌ریزی حرکتی در تولید گفتار، آیرودینامیک گفتار، ‏سازوکار حرکت بخش‌های دستگاه گفتاری و ادراک گفتار و بویژه آواشناسی تعاملی (‏IP‏)، هر دو ‏رویکرد درزمانی و همزمانی مورد نیاز، چه برای تحلیل و چه برای استخراج شواهد به‌کار گرفته ‏شده‌است. داده‌ها در این بررسی همة ستاک‌های گذشتة دارای این موضوعیت در زبان فارسی بوده‌اند. ‏شواهد نظری و تجربی، هم در داده‌ها و هم در دیگر نمونه‌های تاریخی یا به‌روز، مؤید درستی فرضیه در ‏پیدایی واج ‏š‏ در ستاک گذشته فعل و حذف ‏r‏ از پایة آن بودند. یکی دیگر از نتایجی که این بررسی ‏بدست می‌دهد این است که تکواژگونة زیرساختی این دسته از ستاک‌ها می‌بایست ‏‎/st/‎‏ بوده‌باشد. ‏پیشنهاد می‌شود این یافته در پژوهش‌های آتی، بصورت آزمایشگاهی نیز بررسی شود. ‏

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Telescoping in Phonemic Change of the Past Stems Ended by “-št”‎

نویسنده [English]

  • fereshteh momeni

Assistant Professor at Persian Language and Literature Department of Islamic Azad University, Chalous Branch. Mazandaran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

In many Iranian languages including Persian, the past tense stem of some verbs ‎terminates with –št, while their present stem ends with a /r/ which in fact exists in the ‎root; but this /r/ does not appear in the past stem. These verbs are /ænbaštæn/, ‎‎/engaštæn/, /pendaštæn/, /daštæn/, /kaštæn/, /gozaštæn/, /gaštæn/, /gozæštæn/, ‎‎/gomaštæn/, /negaštæn/ and their combinations. Concerning the basic morpheme of │T│ ‎for the past tense of verbs represented in different allomorphs (t, d, st, št, xt, ft, ɑd, ud ‎and id), this research aims to detect the process of formation the -št form of this ‎morpheme in the mentioned verbs. The question is what phonemic processes have led to ‎the deletion of a consonant (r) from the root (which is athwart the definition of "root”) ‎and appearance of /š/ in the past stem. The main motivation for this investigation was ‎lack of convincing reasoning, explanation or even analyzing for the issue. This research ‎based on phonetic factors for sound change containing the elements of motor planning, ‎aerodynamic constraints, gestural mechanics, and especially interactive-phonetic (IP) on ‎one hand, and historical studies on the other hand, has applied both diachronic and ‎synchronic evidences for analysis and explanation of the sound change, and ultimately ‎morpheme formation in the discussed subject.‎
The absence of a consonant in the stem of a verb, in Persian, is a token for being stem ‎constructor, but the presence of a consonant in the root and its absence in only one of ‎the stems, indicates there must be a reason for disappearing the consonant of the root; ‎particularly in past stems due to their construction. In the base of all past stems, “t” or ‎‎“d” (depended on their environment voicing) is seen, whilst the presence of /š/ (the only ‎phoneme without any vestige neither in the root nor in the base form of stems, unlike ‎other phonemes than “t/d” in the stems) in /št/, has been regarded as the sole ‎‎“exceptional” past stem morpheme by the scholars, due to not finding any reason for it.‎
The assumption of this study was that the initial allomorph of past stem constructor ‎should have been /st/ which had make the ending consonant cluster /rst/, and then ‎through the telescoping process of the /r/ (unvoiced [ɾ/ɹ]) with [s] has triggered to ‎emerge /š/. The question here is about the fount of /s/ in the stem. Some investigations ‎have pointed out that in the aorist paradigm of the Old Iranian languages including Old ‎Persian, /s/ had been the aorist stem constructor; therefore some stems were ended with ‎‎/*rst/. According to researchers, this /s/ is still seen in some verbs, despite vanishing of ‎aorist inflection, and in some cases, it has been changed into /š/. This statement, ‎improves our presupposition about the initial allomorph of past stem constructor /st/ ‎instead of /št/ to make ending consonant cluster /rst/ in the past stem. Moreover, one of ‎the most frequent past tense morpheme of many stems in Iranian languages is /-st/, and ‎based on diachronic (e.g. in Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Languages) and ‎synchronic (German dialects and Scandinavian Languages) studies there is a universal ‎sound change of s→š in an especial context. Hereupon, it seems reasonable to emerge ‎such phoneme in the discussed stems, if the condition is fulfilled. One of the triggering ‎conditions has been reported in ruki rule (s → š / r, u, k, i -). Concerning the adjacency ‎of /r/ (the last consonant of the root) and /s/ of the morpheme /st/, the condition is ‎acquired, but the data in Iranian Persian language show a /t/ or /n/ is needed to occur the ‎change.‎
The process of this phonemic change seems to be a phasic telescoping process via ‎saltation (conversion of sound A to C, leaping over a phonetically intermediate sound B) ‎as follows. In order to articulate /r/ at the end of the root and the /s/ of the past tense ‎morpheme, respectively the tip and the blade of the tongue touches the back and the ‎front of the alveolar ridge. In this companion, /s/ gets regressive assimilation with /r/ ‎and becomes retroflex ([ʂ]: intermediate of saltation) by pulling back the tip of the ‎tongue into hard palate, but the alveolar /t/ in /st/ (which is articulated by blade of the ‎tongue in Persian language) removes immediately the retroflex feature by pulling up the ‎tip of the tongue toward the blade to form /š/. Thus based on telescoping process, ‎contrary to the opinion of most scholars, the /r/ of the root has not been omitted but has ‎been merged into /s/ to emerge the sole phoneme /š/: CVr+st →CVšt.‎
The results not only explain the sound change in the above mentioned verbs, but also in ‎some other words in Persian (e.g. /gošne/ hungry, /tešne/ thirsty and etc.); and in dialects ‎of Iranian languages (e.g. /šuštan/ in Mahabadi Kurdish and /šištan/ in Davani dialect for ‎‎/šostan/ to wash in Persian). As previously mentioned, in all of the samples of these ‎change a /t/ or /n/ must be after /rs/ (Vrsn/t). Moreover, as regards the morphophonemic ‎study pertains to the phonemic changes in “morphemes via appending”, in case of simple ‎words (free morphemic structure) like gošne (hungry), tešne (thirsty), Paštu (Pashto), ‎pašne (heel) and so forth, this changing does not seem to be a morphophonemic change. ‎Therefore, this view does not consent to most of the studies in this case which remark it ‎as a morphophonemic change; athwart, it accords with all studies and findings in IP ‎model on phonemic change of /s/ to /š/. ‎

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • telescoping
  • ‎‏ ‏past stem
  • interactive phonetic (IP)
  • merger
  • ‎saltation ‎