نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه زبانشناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

با آنکه در مجهول بنیادی، فعل در حالت غیرمجهول، گذرا است اما در رده‌شناسی مفهوم مجهول، نمونه‌هایی مشاهده می‌شود که از عملکرد فرایند مجهول بر روی فعل ناگذارا/ لازم به دست می‌آیند. این ساخت‌ها، در بررسی‌های مفهوم مجهول، تحت عنوان مجهول بی‌شخص معرفی می‌شوند. این مقاله امکان مجهول‌سازی افعال لازم را در زبان فارسی مورد توجه قرار داده است. برای این بررسی دو پیکرۀ «وابستگی نحوی زبان فارسی» و پیکرۀ «همشهری» مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. پس از استخراج فعل‌های مورد نظر این پژوهش از پیکره، برای بررسی تظاهرات مختلف داده‌های به‌دست‌آمده، نحوۀ حضور افعال مورد نظر در صفحات وب نیز بررسی شده‌‌اند. بررسی‌های داده‌بنیاد این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که در زبان فارسی برخی از افعال لازم می‌توانند با استفاده از الگوی رایج مجهول‌سازی در زبان فارسی مجهول شوند. فاعل فعل لازم نامفعولی پس از عملکرد فرایند مجهول در همان مرتبۀ فاعلی باقی می‌ماند اما در نتیجه مجهول‌سازی بر روی فعل لازم ناکنایی، گاهی فاعل فعل معلوم حذف می‌شود و گاهی به شکل فاعل غیرفاعلی ظاهر می‌گردد. به این ترتیب پژوهش پیکره‌بنیاد حاضر در مجهول‌سازی فعل لازم در زبان فارسی سه امکان را معرفی و گزارش می‌کند. این سه امکان با توجه به نوع فعل لازم مشخص می‌شود. اگر فاعل فعل لازم از نوع کنشگر باشد، پس از مجهول‌سازی تنزل مقام دارد (به صورت حذف یا بازنمایی در حالت غیرفاعلی). اگر فاعل از نوع کنش‌پذیری باشد، فاعل پیش از مجهول‌سازی و پس از آن همانند هستند و به دنبال عملکرد فرایند مجهول، تغییری در مرتبۀ فاعل صورت نمی‌گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The passives on intransitives in Persian language

نویسنده [English]

  • Azadeh Mirzaei

Department of Linguistics, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The passives on intransitives in Persian language
Keenan and Dyer (2007: 329) introduce the two types of passive constructions; basic passives and non-basic passives. In basic passives (i) no agent phrase is present, (ii) the main verb in its non-passive form is transitive, and the main verb expresses an action, having agent subjects and patient objects in its non-passive form (transitive form). Any deviations from the basic passive constructions lead to a non-basic passives. Although in the basic passives, the main verb in its non-passive form is transitive, typological studies of passive construction show that some languages permit passives on intransitives. Keenan and Dryer (2007) introduce a term “impersonal passive” with 6 subtitles. They call the intransitive passive constructions as a kind of the impersonal passive and classify the passivization on intansitives into two groups. The first one uses the syntactic and morphological pattern of basic passives to derive non-basic passives from intransitive verbs. The second one use the same passive morphology on intransitives and in addition uses the agent phrases in the same way as in the basic passives.
In Persian language, there is a rich literature on passives. Accordingly, some linguists do not all agree on existence of passive construction in Persian. Those who disagree about the existence of passives “called this so-called” passive construction inchoative. In contrast to this, there are many linguists who accept it and considerate different aspects of passive construction according to different approaches. Despite this rich literature on passive construction in Persian, nobody said anything about the passivization on intansitives.
This study which is both theory-based and corpus based, addresses the passivization on intransitives in Persian language. The two corpora; Persian Syntactic Dependency Treebank (Rasooli, et al., 2013) and Hamshahri corpus (AleAhmad and et al. 2009) provide the data required (passive verbs) for the research. For this purpose, different conjugations of the passive voice auxiliary verb ‘šodan’ are searched and then, among the different passive verbs, intransitive passives are listed. In the next step, in order to examine how these verbs are presented in the natural language data, the websites have been searched for the passive and active form of this intransitive verbs. The findings, using frequency count and descriptive statistics, showed that in Persian, some unaccusative and unergative intransitives can be passivized based on common passivization pattern in Persian. The passives on unaccusative intransitives accept the subject of active form after passivization in the subject position, whereas those from unergatvive intransitives maybe do or not i.e. in the second form of intransitive passivization the subject is deleted or demoted in an optional oblique phrase. These corpus-based study therefore classifies passives on intransitive verbs into three groups. These three possibilities are determined by the type of intransitives and the subject behavior. If the subject of active intransitive is agent, the verb is unergative intransitive. The subject of active unergative intransitive can be demoted by eliminating from the sentence or by demoting to the status of an oblique NP after passivization. Based on the subject behavior of unergative verb by passivization, these verb can be divided into two group; unergative passive type 1 and unergative passive type 2. If the subject of the intransitive verb is the patient, the verb is unaccusative intransitive. After passivization, the subject of passive and active form of these verbs is identical in subject position.
Some unergative passive type 1 in Persian languge are as follow ‘ɂɑbeɹuɹizi caɹdan’, ‘ɂɑbeɹudɑɹi caɹdan’, ‘casifcɑɹi caɹdan’, ‘xaɹɑbcɑɹi caɹdan’, ‘ɂezdehɑm caɹdan’, ‘ɂetesɑb caɹdan’. Some unergative passive type 2 in Persian languge are ‘hamhame caɹdan’, ‘sɑxtosaz caɹdan’, ‘xɑnesɑzi caɹdan’, ‘ʃahɹacsazi caɹdan’, ‘camfoɹuʃi caɹdan’, ‘Gijɑmat caɹdan’, ‘Ganunʃecani caɹdan’, ‘ceʃɑvaɹzi caɹdan’, ‘ɂenGelɑb caɹdan’, ‘tammadosɑzi caɹdan’, ‘sijɑhcɑɹi caɹdan’. Some accusative passive in Persian languge are as follow ‘palɑsidan’ ‘paʒmoɹdan’ ‘ɹujidan’ ‘ʃecɑftan’ ‘ʃecoftan’ ‘fot caɹdan’ ‘ɂɑbse caɹdan’ ‘ɹosub caɹdan’ ‘taɹɑʃ xoɹdan’.
Accordingly, the results of this corpus-based study revealed that Persian language permits passives on intransitives like some other languages (Dutch, German, Latin, Classical Greek, North Russian dialects, Shona (Bantu), Turkish, and Taramahua (Uto-Aztecan)). In addition to this central result, according to the findings we could also explain why the subject of some intransitive verbs remains in the subject position after passivization but the subject of the other one demotes in oblique position or totally deleted from the sentence. And that's because the intransitive verbs can be divided in to two groups; unergative and unaccusative intransitives which the subject of the first one is agent and the subject of the other one is patient. After passivization, the patient subject of intransitive active verb remains in the subject position but the agent subject of intransitive active verb demotes through deleting or appearing in the form of oblique phrase.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • passive construction
  • impersonal passive
  • unaccusative verb
  • unergative verb
  • Persian language