نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکترای زبان‌شناسی از دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 دانشیار گروه زبان‌شناسی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

چکیده

طبقه‌بندی انواع ساخت شرطی در زبان‌های مختلف به لحاظ معنایی، نحوی، صوری، رده‌شناختی و... انجام گرفته‌است. در این مقاله، به بررسی انواع ساخت شرطی در زبان فارسی‌نو، براساس رده‌شناسی دکلرک و رید (2001) پرداختیم. براساس این رده‌شناسی معنایی، جهان ممکن بند شرط به دو دستۀ حقیقی و نظری تقسیم می‌شود. جهان ممکن نظری می‌تواند خنثی یا غیرخنثی باشد و غیرخنثی، به چهار نوع بسته، باز، غیرقطعی و ضدحقیقی تقسیم می‌شود. در این پژوهش جملات شرطی مستخرج از 110 کتاب از قرون چهارم تا چهاردهم هجری قمری مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تحلیل جملات شرطی زبان فارسی‌نو نشان می‌دهد که کاربرد ساخت شرطی در قرون متقدم نسبت به قرون متأخر بسیار بیشتر بوده است. ازطرف‌دیگر، جملات شرطی این زبان، مشتمل بر انواع حقیقی، خنثی، بسته، باز، غیرقطعی و ضدحقیقی هستند و جملات شرطی از نوع باز، بالاترین بسامد وقوع را دارند. بنابراین، ساخت شرطی زبان فارسی‌نو با رده‌شناسی مذکور مطابقت دارد. بالاتر بودن بسامد وقوع جهان ممکن باز از آنجا نشأت می‌گیرد که در این جهان ممکن، موقعیتی فرضی که احتمال وقوع دارد، در نظر گرفته می‌شود و قطعیتی دربارۀ وقوع آن وجود ندارد و این تعبیر با کارکرد ساخت شرطی بیشترین تطابق را دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Typology of conditional construction in New Persian language

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyede Atefe Baghaei 1
  • Mehrdad Naghzguy Kohan 2

1 Ph. D in Linguistics of Bu-Ali Sina University

2 Faculty member of Buali Sina University, Hamedan

چکیده [English]

Introduction
There are Conditional sentences in all languages and they are one of the universal phenomena in languages. The conditional sentence consists of two main and subordinate clauses that they are apodosis and protasis clauses respectively. In this study, due to the importance of conditional constructions and the lack of typological classification of these structures in the Persian language, we have studied the typology of conditional constructions in New Persian language.

Theoretical concepts
In this study, we will examine conditional sentences of New Persian language, based on the theoretical framework of Declerck and Reed (2001). In this semantic theoretical framework, conditional sentences can be classified in different types according to the possible worlds of protasis clause. In this typology possible world of protasis clause can be factual or theoretical. If the possible world is theoretical, it can be neutral or non-neutral, and if it is non-neutral, it can be one of the four types of closed, open, tentative and counterfactual. In the diagram 1, this typology is observed:

Diagram 1: Typology of possible worlds
In factual protasis conditional the situation of protasis clause is interpreted as a fact, which it forms part of the real world (Declerck & Reed, 2001, p. 65-66). The following sentence is a factual one:
1. If I had a problem, I always went to my grandmother.

In a conditional sentence that refers to the theoretical world, if there is no relation with the real world, it will be neutral. The speaker who uses the neutral conditional has no presupposition or assumption about the likelihood of a theoretical world and the real world. The following sentence is a neutral one:
2. If a woman has a history of cancer in her family, she should be examined each year.

On the other hand, if the speaker uses the non-neutral theoretical protasis, there is a presupposition about the likelihood of theoretical and real world. Given that the degree of this probability, there are four types of non-neutral theoretical conditionals in which the presupposition of protasis clause with real world can be true, probably true, unlikely and false, which is called closed, open, tentative and counterfactual respectively (ibid, p. 67-72).
In the closed conditional the speaker assumes that the situation of the protasis clause in the real world is true. The following sentence is closed one:
3. If you know something about this, tell me.

If there is not a certain correspond between protasis’s possible world and the real world, then the possible world would be open, that there is no certainty, no probability or unlikely about corresponding between real world and possible world. The following sentence is open conditional sentence (Ibid, p. 91-93):
4. If the train is late, we will miss our appointment

In the tentative possible world, the accommodation of the protais’s possible world and real world is impossible but it is not improbable. In fact, in this conditional, it is more likely that the situation of the protasis clause in the real world is false (ibid.,p. 93-98). The following sentence is a tentative one:
5. If he resigned, I would be happy.

Finally, the conditional sentence in which there is an assumption that the protasis’s theoretical world is contrary with factuality and it is completely different from the real world is the counterfactual conditional (Declerck & Reed, 2001, p. 99). The following sentence is a counterfactual one:
6. I would never have gone with them if I were you.
Methodology
According to the research objectives, the authors has selected the data needed for the research from the written texts of New Persian language, which include the period from the fourth to the fourteenth century AH and from each of these centuries, 10 books from different authors have been selected. Then, from each of the selected books, randomly an approximate number of five thousand words was examined and conditional constructions were collected in that 5000 words corpus of each book. Therefore, 110 books from 11 centuries and approximately 50,000 words from each century were examined. Finally, it can be said that the present thesis consists of an approximate number of 556072 words and 3045 pages. In other words, 50552 words and 277 pages have been examined from each century. Then we examined all the 3648 conditional sentences that they were extracted from the corpus and then, we determined the type of conditional construction of each conditional sentence based on the theoretical framework.

Conclusions
We indicated that the conditional construction of the New Persian language can be adapted to the typology of Declerck and Reed (2001). Therefore there are factual, neutral, closed, open, tentative and counterfactual conditional types in New Persian language. By examining the frequency of occurrence of conditional sentences in the fourth to eleventh century AH, we concluded that the use of conditional constructions in the early centuries was much higher than the later centuries, and there was a steady decline down to the tenth century. By examining the frequency of possible worlds in conditional sentences in the fourth to fourteenth centuries, we concluded that the highest frequency of occurrence of possible worlds belongs to the open possible world and subsequently the neutral, closed and factual possible worlds have high frequency. The reason for the higher frequency of open possible world is the higher iconicity of this conditional construction, since in this construction the speaker considers the hypothetical position that it is likely to occur, and this situation by constructing the concept of a conditional term that expresses A hypothetical position has the highest degree of similarity and therefore has the highest iconicity. By increasing the iconicity of a construction that can be a criteria in the rising of the frequency of a construction, the frequency of the conditional sentence with the open possible world is increased, and this result is due to the ease in the processing of such sentences.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • typology
  • conditional construction
  • open conditional
  • frequency
  • New Persian language