تکرار را میتوان نمونهای از بروز جریاناتِ تروپیسمی ساروتی در زبان بیرونی دانست. تروپیسم در حقیقت همان عکس العمل یا تحریکات ایجاد شده در اثر حضور دیگری است. این حضور، دنیای درون شخصیتهای ساروت را دچار دگرگونی کرده و تاثیر آن در رفتار و گفتارشان نمود پیدا میکند. به بیانی دیگر، خود را در حضور دیگری یافتن به معنایِ درکِ لزومِ ارتباط و خودابرازی (سخن گفتن و برقراری ارتباط) می باشد، در حالیکه در دنیای ساروت خودابرازی مساوی با محدود کردنِ معنا و احساس است. بمحض سخن گفتن، زبان قراردادی یا بیرونی شکل می گیرد، اما زبانِ نامحدود درونی که مکانِ احساسات ناب و غیرقابل بیانها می باشد خدشه دار میشود چرا که نمیتواند کامل و بینقص به مرحلهی تولید زبان برسد.مقالهی حاضر در تلاش است با نگرشی جدید به بررسی اجمالیِ مسألهی زبان در آثار نمایشیِ محدودِ این نویسنده (سرهیچ و پوچ، او آنجاست، زیباست، ایسما، دروغ، سکوت) بپردازد. و نقش تکرار بهعنوان فرایندی کلامی در پویایی یا ایستاییِ متن و چگونگی تجلیِ تروپیسم ساروتی یا احساس در کلام را تبیین کند. این مقاله با استناد بر مطالعاتِ پژوهشگران حوزهی علوم زبانی، نمایش و ادبیات نظیر اَرنو ریکنر و فرآنسواز کَلَن، با عینی سازی از طریقِ تحلیلِ آثار نمایشی ساروت ضمنِ رویکردی بینارشته ای (زبانشناسی، ادبیات) نگاشته شده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The repetition process in Sarraute's dramatic works, the verbal language's dynamics or its stagnation?
Repetition can be considered as one of the expressions of Nathalie Sarraute's tropism in the external language. The language of Sarraute reflects more than the meaning, the sensation. Even if the perception, the understanding and the certain explanation of this language excited by the sensation seem to be impossible, the marks of this shaking are manifested in verbal forms such as repetition. The study of repetition is important because it is used extensively in Sarraute's text and plays a crucial role in increasing verbal communication. In the novels of Nathalie Sarraute, the narrator's agitated language is a good place for the appearance of tropism, while in dramatic works, the erased narration is replaced by the short and few blocking and this is how the importance of speech increases. The role of repetition in textual dynamism and its relation to tropism are the elements that will be emphasized in this research.Figures of insistence or repetition such as anaphora, redundancy, polysyndeton or simple repetition make the narrative progress temporally, while they make the sentences syntactically entangled. Translating monotony and uniformity, they have the ability to convey to the reader the effect of interest and indignation at the same time. Consistent with the sensation but opposed to the reason, they bring to the text the mark of tropism. Alongside the figures of interruptions and omissions that attenuate the progress of speech, the emphasis figures prolong verbal communication through repetitions and the process of word reproduction. All these figures, widely used in Sarraute's works, represent in fact the anomalies or the verbal disorders coming from the resistance of the interior language to the exteriorization.
Françoise Calin studied in Nathalie Sarraute's novels, reiterations especially in terms of points of view. He gave some examples in which a single conversation is sometimes repeated by the different speakers from where the practice of "stagnation of the story". We take this expression of Calin to designate the effect of repetition in the dramatic texts of Sarraute. The figures of repetition, redundancy and polysyndeton are one of the main anomalies causing the entanglement of the structures of the text and its stagnation. But in this stagnation, there is a kind of dynamism and it is considered as one of the solutions of the momentary recording of tropism.
According to Sarah Anthony's explanation in "Between the Spoken and the Unspoken: a Sarrautian Dialectic," Sarraute uses repetitions to dilate the tropism. Anthony summarizing the parts of the book The said and the unsaid in Nathalie Sarraute's The Use of Speech written in 2006 by Sarah Charieyras, expresses the difficulties of grasping and understanding the tropisms. She tackles in his work the problem of the inexpressible and the brevity of the tropismic movements. According to her, "Sarraute dilates the text to expose the minutiae of tropisms to the readers." Repetition is then a linguistic instrument not to restrain, but at least to slow down the distracted flight of tropism in order to exhibit these implicit movements of the inner language by the explicit structures of verbal language. In this article, we will examine these verbal excitements caused by repetitions, and whether they advance Sarraute's text or reduce his advancement. The high use of repetition is not an arbitrary choice. The author uses it to distort the structures of speech and to give them a deregulated and rebellious figure. The bearers of Sarraute's language do not seem normal to reveal the power of a troubled language that is full of expression, which forces the man to manifest and express himself. But the universe of expressible and perceptible facts being smaller than that of the unspeakable and unnamed, externalized language inevitably carries traces of irrationality. Sarraute's language is in the general sense of the term the executioner and the victim at the same time. Obliged to externalize himself to begin to exist, he loses his originality at the price of existing verbally, but it is a perpetually destructive birth that pushes the utterance to die out and throws a challenge to his bearer.Repetition seems more specific when it becomes a solution and a language practice among the "bearers" of the language to maintain contact as much as possible. However, they intentionally resign themselves inevitably to repetition figures in order not to lose the least communicational chances. It is an uncomfortable and painful choice for the sarrautian bearers who, in the philosophical sense of the word, already consider "to speak" as a "copy of copy.Repetitive words most often play the role of triggers for tropism. They seem to be the free choices of speech carriers who, in an instant, delay the ordinary progress of the text.