تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی با وارد کردن مفاهیم قدرت و ایدئولوژی به واکاوی روابط نابرابر قدرت و رمزگشایی ایدئولوژی-های پنهان شده در متنها میپردازد. این پژوهش از طریق تحلیل مقالههای دو روزنامهی "ریاض" عربستان و "تشرین" سوریه با محوریت توافق هستهای ایران (برجام) در نظر دارد بر اساس الگوی اجتماعی – معنایی ونلیوون (2008)، چگونگی بازنمایی کنشگران اجتماعی را بررسی کند، تا از این طریق نخست ایدئولوژیهای صاحبان این دو روزنامه نسبت به این مسأله نشان داده شود و سپس قطبهای خودی و دیگری در این مقالهها و صفات مربوط به هر یک از آنها مشخص گردد. تفاوت نتایج به دست آمده حاکی از این است که بازنمایی کنشگران اجتماعی در این متون با ارجاعهای مختلف و متناسب با برجستهسازی و حاشیهرانی ویژگیهای مثبت خودی و منفی دیگری به کار رفته است. مقالههای روزنامه ریاض بیشتر به هویتهای دیگری یعنی ایران و توافق هستهای (برجام) پرداخته و تمام ابزار را در جهت بازنمایی منفی آنها به کار برده است در حالی که مقالههای روزنامهی تشرین به همان اندازه که ایران را به عنوان قطب خودی، مثبت و فعال به نمایش گذاشته، هویتهای دیگری مانند اسرائیل و عربستان را نیز به صورت منفی و فعال بازنمایی کرده است. به نظر میرسد مقالههای هر دو روزنامه به یک اندازه از ارجاعها بهره برده و ارجاع طبقهبندی (ارزشدهی) بیشترین ارجاعی است که مقالههای هر دو روزنامه برای بازنمایی منفی دیگری و مثبت خودی استفاده کردند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Representation of Social Actors in Iran's Nuclear agreement Discourse Based on Model Van leeuwen in Two Newspapers Al Riyadh Saudi Arabia and Tishreen Syria
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary field in which social, political, sociological patterns are interwoven, and its purpose is to examine the relationships that are brought about by the inequality of power, Ideology and hegemony apply in the form of texts and conversations in political and social contexts.
One of the most powerful institutions that plays a very important role in using ideological discourses and rebuilding power relations in today's societies is undoubtedly media (television, newspapers, films, magazines, etc.). The press performs ideological work by representing various issues. How the press covers events in the framework of the ideology of the media and based on their interests. Syntactic and vocabulary choices are not optional or incidental; in fact, the ideological positions in each period and in each discourse are revealed in the structure of the news reports. The focus on analyzing media texts should be on how to represent events, situations, relationships, and people in media content. It is important how events are represented in the linguistic structure of the sentence; how to make propositions, combine them and arrange them.
Van Leeuwen developed the analysis of critical discourse from the field of linguistics into the world of the universe, and defined the sociological-semantic indicators as the reason for this "the absence of a 100% direct relation between linguistic indices and their role. " He also believes that "the study of sociological-semantic components of discourse is a powerful tool for the analysis of the text rather than mere linguistic components".
Iran's nuclear program is one of the most challenging issues at the international and regional level, which has focused all the media on its own. the Arab world has adopted a different approach to this issue due to the heterogeneous and incompatible national interests. The views of Saudi Arabia and Syria are influenced by variables such as the nature and volume of relations with the United States, the background of bilateral relations, the conception and conception of the intentions and goals of Iran. Hence, the researcher intends to determine how conflicts between the two countries' views are expressed in the language? What is the quality of referrals, how is the representation and naming of the parties involved in this agreement and how to portray incidents and events in these newspapers? What are the ideological and existing differences between the two newspapers? In order to achieve the goal, the writer, in addition to using the van Leeuwen model (2008), also uses the Halliday’s transitivity model (2004). throughout the paper. The reason for the selection of the two newspapers is that both are published in Saudi Arabia and Syria, both of which are governed and written in accordance with the policies of the two countries, both of which are the most prestigious newspapers.
The difference in the results disclose that the representation of social actors in these texts has been carried out with various references tailored to the intended purpose of the author. The newspaper Al-Riyadh has more to do with other identities and has used all the means to represent them negatively, while the Tishreen newspaper, represents other identities negatively and actively as well as the representation self-identities positively and actively. Both papers use the same amount of these references, and it seems that appraisement is the most referent used for negative representation the other and positive representation the self. A review of these two newspapers revealed that these two newspapers revealed quite different ideologies about Iran's nuclear energy and the actors involved in this text. The negative representations of the newspaper Al-Riyadh from Iran, Iranian actors, and even Western actors as Barack Obama as an important factor in signing this agreement are endorsement of this article. On the contrary, the positive representation of the newspaper Tishreen in relation to this agreement can be a sign of the positive ideology of the newspaper's owners towards Iran and Iran's nuclear agreement. But the processes used in these papers are based on Halliday’s transitivity model: the material process has the highest frequency among existing processes that represent the positive and negative actions of the self and the other. The relationship process is also another process used to represent the nuclear agreement, which has been used by the Tishreen Newspaper to be more frequent than the Riyadh newspaper and has used it to represent a positive nuclear agreement. The verbal process is another process used by the writers to identify the actors, and the remarkable point is that both newspapers have used the process to represent a negative one. The use of both newspapers from the material process and the relationship is that these two processes are more realistic and more truthful than other processes.