نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه فرهنگ زبان های باستانی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

چکیده

پهلوی اشکانی یکی از زبان‌های ایرانی است که نوشته‌های آن در دورة میانة زبان‌های ایرانی از اشکانیان، ساسانیان و پیروان دین مانوی بر جای مانده است. در دورة نو زبان‌های ایرانی، دیگر اثری از این زبان در دست نیست. با این‌همه، گویش‌های ایرانی نو هر یک به گونه‌ای دنبالة یکی از زبان‌های ایرانی در دورة میانه و باستانی زبان‌های ایرانی هستند. پاره‌ای از زبان‌های ایرانی دورة نو را می‌توان دنبالة یکی از زبان‌های ثبت شدة دورة میانه دانست. برای نمونه، زبان فارسی دنبالة فارسی میانه است و یغنابی دنبالة سغدی است. پرسش این است که آیا می توان گویشی ایرانی در دورة نو را دنبالة پهلوی اشکانی دانست؟
این پژوهش بر آن است تا با بررسی نوشته های برجای مانده از فرقة حروفیه که در کتاب واژه نامة گرگانی صادق کیا آمده است، پیوندهای زبانی میان پهلوی اشکانی و گویش گرگانی را از دید واژگانی، واجی و نحوی روشن نماید. برای این کار واژه‌ها و جمله‌هایی از پهلوی اشکانی تورفانی و کتیبه‌ای برگزیده شده و با واژه‌ها و جمله‌هایی از گویش گرگانی در نوشته‌های فرقة حروفیه سنجیده شده است.
در پایان این نتیجه به دست آمده است که گویش گرگانی یکی از بازمانده‌های زبان ایرانی پهلوی اشکانی بوده که تا دورة تیموری یا پس از آن در گرگان رواج داشته و سپس رو به خاموشی رفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of language Relationships between Parthian and Gurgâni Texts of Hurufiyye

نویسنده [English]

  • Arman Bakhtiary

Associate prof. of Iranian ancient culture and languages,Bu-Ali sina university ,Hamadan.

چکیده [English]

English Abstract
Examining the linguistic relationship between Parthian and some literary works from Gorgâni dialect.
The term Iranian language are used for any languages which is descended from proto- Iranian language, spoken in central Asia , in late 3rd to early end BCE. Iranian languages have been spoken in the areas from Chinese Turkistan to the Western Europe. This language (proto- Iranian) comes from proto Indo-Aryan. The Iranian and Indo- Iranian (Aryan) languages belong to the main language called proto-Indo European language.
This language perhaps was spoken in the area of southern Russia. The Iranian languages have three chronological periods: old, Middle and New Iranian languages. Persian is the only language, which has document in three stages. The Iranian languages in old Iranian stage are Median, Persian ,Saka and avesta which have corpus or words in corpus languages. The Iranian languages in Middle stage are Persian ,Parthian ,Sodian,Bactria, chorosmian ,Saka language. From which the Parthian belong to north west Iranian languages. The Parthian languages have evidences in Middle stage and new stage of Iranian languages. This language have also evidences in Parthian period and Sassanian period.
The Parthian evidences is also from Manichaean literature .The Manichaean literature belong to Manichaean Religion. It is from Arsakid and Sassanian period and also from Islamic period.
The known Middle Iranian language spoken from about 3 century include: Khotanese, Sogdian, Chorasanian , in Bactria was Bactrian spoken. In Parthia ,was Parthian spoken the language of Arsacids .In pars of pre-Sasanians dynastie ,Middle Persian,called pahlavi, was spoken. this language became the official language of sassanian dynastie .It was the language of zoroastrian literature called Pahlavi.
Today the Iranian language if spoken in Turkey, Iran, Caucasus ,in the west of chinese Turkestan and Pakistan ,Afganistan and Tajikistan. These languages are Ossetic spoken in Ossetia: Digoroa and Iron. Kurdish spoken in three variants in eastern Turkey and Syria, northern Iraq and west Iran, Baluchi, spoken in eastern Iran and western Pakistan and in southern Afghanistan and central Asia and Pashto spoken in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
These languages and dialects can be divided in to several larger groups on the basis of grammatical, phonetic and lexical isoglosses.
The languages of southeastern and southern Iran offten have a/d/ where other Iranian languages have/z/ (for example dân Farsi to known , but zân in Kurdish). Other asoglosses ,for example the word for “to do” kar/Kard(Kird) and kun/kurd (kird), gōw-goft in farsi and wāč-(wāj-/wāxt) in west Iranian dialects (Kurdi,Gruganni, Taleši and so on).
The start of Parthian period may be plased after the middle of the 3rd century BCE. when the conflict between Seleucus II and his brother Antiochus hierax opened the way for the eruption of the nomadic Iranian Parthians in to the province of Parthian in north west of Iran also the (Selucid dynasty).After that they become known as Parthian and they used the middle Iranian language of north west of Iran (Parthian language).
The subsequent establishment of the Parthian empire took place in two stages: Mithradatse I( ca 171-139 BCE) and Mithradates II (ca 124-88 BCE).In this time is the territorial expansion completed.
As said Parthian in one the Iranian language the text of which have remained in the middle period of Iranian languages from the Parthians, and followers of Manichaean religion. There is no trace of this language in the modern period of Iranian languages. Nevertheless, the New Iranian dialects each follow one of the Iranian languages in the middle and ancient period. Some of new Iranian languages can be considered as the sequel of the Middle period languages. For instance, the Persian language is classified as a continuation of Middle Persian and the Yaghani is a continuation of Sogdian. The question is ,can an Iranian dialect in the new era be considered as a continuation of Parthian language?
The study aims to clarify the linguistic links between the Parthian and Gorgâni dialect from the verbal, phonological, and syntactic point of view, by examining the literary works of Hurufiyye sect, written in Sadegh Kia’s Gorgâni Dictionary. To this end, words and sentences have been selected from the Turfan and inscriptional Parthian, and have been compared whit the words and sentences of the Gorgâni dialect in the Hurufiyye works.
The Hurufiyye works belong to an Islamic sect, which believe in the meaning of the words. This sect had written this works in new Persian but whit elements from Gurgâni dialect.
In the end, the result shows that Gurgâni dialect, in the investigated evidence, can have links whit one of the survivors of the Middle Iranian language, the Parthian. This dialect has been prevalent in Gurgâni since the Teymurid era or later, and then has gone into silence,
Key words: Parthian. Iranian language. Gurgâni literary works, Hurufiyye sect, Historical linguistics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : pahlawᾱnīg
  • Iranian languages
  • Gurgᾱni dialects
  • Hurufiyye