نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زبان شناسی/ دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 گروه زبان‌شناسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران/ایران

3 گروه زبان شناسی/ دانشگاه تربیت مدرس/ تهران/ایران

4 گروه زبان شناسی دانشگاه تربیت درس/ تهران/ایران

چکیده

هدف مقاله، مطالعه شناخت فرهنگی داستان‌های کودکانه نوشته شده به زبان فارسی است. برای دستیابی به این هدف، در چارچوب زبان‌شناسی فرهنگی (شریفیان 2017) مفهوم‌سازی‌های فرهنگی این داستان‌ها تحلیل می‌شوند. نمونه آماری شامل صد داستان در گروه‌های سنی الف و ب بوده که به روش هدفمند از بین کتاب‌های منتشر شده توسط سه ناشر معتبر دولتی در محدوده زمانی سال‌های 1377-1397 انتخاب شده‌اند. طرحواره‌های فرهنگی زیربنایی به کار رفته در این داستان‌ها به عنوان بخشی از شناخت فرهنگی جامعه فارسی‌زبانان استخراج و با روش تحلیل فراگفتمانی بررسی شده است. از قرار دادن تعاملات شخصیت‌های داستانی در چارچوب عملی زبان‌شناسی فرهنگی، چندین طرحواره خرد با مضامین اجتماعی متفاوت به دست آمد که در طرحواره‌های کلان درونه‌گیری شده بودند. سه طرحواره‌ کلان همدلی، تعارف و پشیمانی الگوهای تکرارشونده داشته و با طرحواره‌‌های جانبی همیاری، آزادی‌خواهی، مهان‌نوازی، رودربایستی و شرمندگی ارتباط دارند. «سکوت» در طرحواره‌های کلان نقش کاربردی داشته و برخی از تعاملات کلامی شخصیت‌های داستانی تحت تأثیر این مفهوم قرار می‌گیرد. طرحواره خرد «تنهایی» نیز در طرحواره‌های کلان همدلی و پشیمانی درونه‌گیری شده و بر روی کنش‌های کلامی و غیرکلامی شخصیت‌های داستانی تأثیرگذار بوده است. علیرغم داشتن نقش کاربردی پسندیده در ادبیات بزرگسالان، مفاهیم انزواطلبی و سکوت در ادبیات کودکان طرحواره‌های منفی ایجاد می‌کنند و نشانه ناهنجاری در روابط اجتماعی تلقی می‌شوند. نتایج این تحقیق، طرحواره‌های فرهنگی زبان فارسی را در داستان‌های کودکان نمایان می‌سازد. علاوه بر حوزه ادبیات کودکان، نتایج این تحقیق می‌تواند در مطالعات جامعه‌شناسی و مردم‌شناسی نیز کاربرد داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

cultural conceptualizations in Persian children's stories: a cognitive study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masume Kheirabadi 1
  • Ferdows Aghagolzadeh 2
  • Arsalan Golfam 3
  • Aliye Kord Zaferanlu Kambuziya 4

1 PHD Candidate in linguistics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Faculty member/ linguistics group/ Tarbiat Modares University/ Tehran/Iran

3 Faculty Member/ linguistics group/ Tarbiat Modares University/ Tehran/Iran

4 Faculty Member/ linguistics group/ Tarbiat Modares University/ Tehran/Iran

چکیده [English]

The primary purpose of this research is to study cultural cognition and conceptualizations in Persian stories published for children. The problem of research is to determine which cultural conceptualizations are embedded in the texts of Persian children’s stories. The methodological approach taken in this study is based on cultural linguistics. According to Sharifian (2017: 7) cultural linguistics is based on the premise that many aspects of human languages encode cultural conceptualizations. In other words, cultural conceptualizations are embedded in many features of human languages. Cultural linguistics offers both a theoretical and an analytical framework to investigate the cultural conceptualizations underling the human languages in practice. The theoretical framework of cultural linguistics contains the notion of “cultural cognition”, which affords an integrated understanding of the notions of “cognition” and “culture” and the way these two are related to language. The analytical framework provides some useful tools that allow us to examine features of human languages encoding conceptualizations and to analyze the relationship between language and cultural conceptualizations. They contain the three major notions of “cultural schema”, “cultural category”, and “cultural metaphor”. By cultural schemas we mean a culturally constructed subclass of “cognitive schemas” that are an invention of the cognitive sciences. Cultural schemas, which may in some cases encompass subschemas, are instantiated in many aspects of language. Sharifian (2014) believes that cultural schemas capture pools of knowledge that provide the basis for a significant portion of encyclopedic and pragmatic meanings in human languages, and a substantial foundation for the “common ground” i.e., the knowledge shared, or assumed to be shared, by the members of a speech community. Cultural schemas (and subschemas) include beliefs, norms, rules, and expectations of behaviour as well as values relating to various aspects and components of experience. Members of a cultural group negotiate and renegotiate these schemas and pass them onto later generations. According to Shore (1996) Cultural schemas may be instantiated through the use of language, in painting, rituals, and even in silence. Various levels and units of language such as morphosyntactic features, lexical items, speech acts, idioms, metaphors, discourse markers, etc., may be established in cultural schemas. Aspects of language that mainly draw on cultural schemas may expedite intra-cultural communication, while debilitating intercultural communication. Within a cultural group, communication based on cultural schemas involves a much more fluid transfer of messages and yields more homogeneous interpretations than communication based on idiosyncratic, individual-based schemas. This research introduces fundamental cultural schemas in the Persian childrens’ stories within cultural linguistics analytical framework and analyses the determined schemas within metalinguistic discourse method which is developed by Sharifian and Tayebi (2017a, 2017b). For their analysis of perceptions of (im)politeness in Persian, Sharifian and Tayebi developed an innovative three-tier model consisting metadiscourse analysis level; discourse analysis level and conceptual analysis level. metadiscourse analysis focuses on identifying words or expressions frequently used by those participating in interactions describing (im)polite acts. In discourse analysis level, they identified the scenarios that had led to evaluations of (im)politeness. Eventually, in conceptual analysis they examine the nature of the relationship between the perception and evaluation of (im)politeness and the impliciting cultural conceptualizations, as well as the ethnography of related cultural conceptualizations, some of which may remain unobserved by the interactants in the course of communication.
The statistical sample of this research consisted a corpus of 100 Persian stories published for children of A and B age groups (6-10 years old) during the time span of 1998-2018. Fifty two interactions among the characters have been found in these stories. Thirty one cultural schemas showing various cultural themes are identified by putting the interactions of the stories’ characters within analytical framework of cultural linguistics. The findings indicate that three major macro schemas of sympathy, taa’rof (Iranian art of etiquette) and sense of regret have shown some repetitive schematic patterns which are themselves closely related to sub-schemas of cooperation, freedom seeking, hospitality, formality and embarrassment. Silence plays an indispensible pragmatic role in macro-schema level and a considerable number of verbal interactions of the stories’ characters are closely influenced by this metalinguistic element. Micro schema of solitariness is also embedded within macro schema of sympathy and regret consequently has had remarkable effect on verbal and nonverbal interactions of characters. The present study makes several noteworthy contributions to elicit some cultural schemas of Persian language reflected in common social interactions of children stories and besides enriching the literature relating to children stories, the evidence from this study, mainly the new list of schemas, will serve as a base for further probes in sociological and anthropological studies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "cultural linguistics"
  • "cultural cognition"
  • "cultural conceptualizations"
  • "Persian"
  • "children stories'"