نوشتن پیچیده ترین مهارت زبانی است که برای آموزش آن نیاز به آموزش مهارتهای شناختی و فراشناختی زیاد و باتوجه به بعد عاطفی و اجتماعی است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی میزان پرداختن به این مهارتها در برنامه درسی قصد شده و کتاب های درسی فارسی دوره ابتدایی است که مهمترین منابع آموزش نوشتن در کشور محسوب می شوند. بنیان نظری پژوهش رویکرد فرآیند محور است؛ نمونه آماری، کتاب فارسی (مهارتهای خوانداری) و کتاب فارسی (مهارتهای نوشتاری) پایه ششم است که با روش تحلیل محتوای هدایتشده یا قیاسی ازنظر دارا بودن مهارتهای پایه یا خرد و مهارتهای سطح بالا یا کلان نوشتن، فرصت های نوشتن برای این مهارتها و همچنین ایجاد اجتماعی از نویسندگان، تجزیهوتحلیل شدند. از آمار توصیفی برای استخراج و پردازش یافتهها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در کتابهای فارسی پایه ششم بیشتر به مهارتهای خرد و پایه پرداخته میشود و نسبت به مهارتهای کلان و سطح بالا کمتوجهی یا بیتوجهی میشود. نتایج همچنین نشان داد رویکرد غالب در این کتابها به آموزش نوشتن رویکردی برآیندنگر است و تناسبی میان ابعاد شناختی، عاطفی و رفتاری نوشتن وجود ندارد. بیشترین تاکید بر بعد رفتاری و کمترین تاکید بر بعد عاطفی است. برنامة قصدشده نیز رویکردی برآیندنگر دارد. هرچند رویکرد محتوای نوشتهشده با برنامة قصدشده هماهنگ است، بیتوجهی به رویکرد فرایندمحور که روشی موثر در امر آموزش بهویژه در آموزش مهارت نوشتن است بهعنوان کاستی فراگیر و آسیبی مهم باید مورد توجه متخصصان این حوزه قرار گیرد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Study of teaching writing in reading and writing textbook of elementary schools based on the process-oriented approach and an intended program
In each country, educational systems play an important role in reaching goals and adapting the changes in society. Language skills are the main objectives of the primary curriculum. Clearly, the competence in it requires education while any education needs a program and this program should be evaluated to improve.
Writing is an integral part of contemporary education because of its relation to thinking and reading. Writing is a valuable factor both for current education reform and individual success at school and at work, therefore it is essential for educators to define the strengths and weaknesses of the current school curriculum while In the field of writing, there have been fewer researches in the country and they do not suggest changes in writing as a result of the transformation of philosophical and theoretical foundations. Therefore, in this research, it was attempted to evaluate the written curriculum of primary writing instruction based on the theoretical foundation and the written curriculum.
There are two main approaches to writing: Product Approach and Process Approach. The Product Approach is derived from the behavioral theory and the Positivism Philosophy while the emphasis is on the teacher and the lower-level cognitive functions. In this approach, educational methods are more one-dimensional and teacher-centered. Writing in this perspective is based on grammar and regularization through direct teaching. Students write in one step and teacher also score in one step to the final writing. Therefore, in this approach, the emphasis is on basic skills such as handwriting, spelling and linguistic knowledge (word-formation and grammar). By changing the philosophy of teaching from positivism to post-positivism, the process-writing approach transformed the old approach (the product approach). In this approach, the emphasis is on the student, problem, and process. The process of writing transforms thoughts and ideas into the final text and emphasizes the construction of meaning and its transition. Over time, the process approach evolved and introduced other dimensions.
This research is upon the process approach which merges other approaches. Effective elements derived from other approaches are well combined with the writing process and show positive results in research. Thus, a pattern of writing education used that takes into account the training and opportunities writing for high-level skills such as strategies, goals, criteria of evaluation, and growth of self-regulation strategy as well as basic skills in an interactive and collaborative context. Since the process of Writing is the central element in this approach, the theoretical foundation of this research is called the process-oriented approach.
The textbook is one of the most important references and resources for the students learning the educational system in our country. In Iran, most educational activities are carried out within the framework of the textbook and the most educational activities and experiences of students and teachers are organized by it.
In this research, we tried to study the writing skills in Reading and Writing Textbooks of elementary schools and their approach to writing based on the teacher's guidebook. This research seeks to answer the two fundamental questions: "How is the approach of reading and writing textbooks to writing instruction?" And "Is the approach of reading and writing textbooks to writing instruction coordinated with the intended approach in the teacher's guidebook?"
The method of measurement in this research is guided content analysis or analogy-based content analysis. In a guided or analogy-based approach, the basis of the analysis is the existing theory or the results of previous research as initial codes. The content of these textbooks was analyzed based on basic or micro level skills and high or macro level skills, writing opportunity for these skills and providing writers community. The statistical population of the study is reading, writing textbooks and teacher guidebooks for primary schools. In grade selection, it is expected that the higher grade will be more advanced in writing. Therefore, the sixth grade, as the final year of the selected period, was targeted and the data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain the results.
The results showed that in sixth-grade reading and writing textbooks there is more attention to basic and micro-level skills and low-paid or no paid attention to macro and high-level skills. Results showed that the writing instruction model does not consist of the process approach while it has the traditional approach component, so there is no balance between the cognitive, affective and behavioral dimension of the writing instruction in the written content. The most value is for the behavioral dimension while the least value is for the effective dimension. In addition, the more attention was for basic skills in the cognitive and behavioral dimension. Findings also showed that the written curriculum is coordinated with the intended curriculum.