این تحقیق با روشی مقابله ای و انتقادی برآن است تا به واکاوی ایدیولوژی پنهان قدرت در لایه های گفتمانی متن حاصل از دو قانون اساسی: جمهوری اسلامی (1358 هجری شمسی، 1979 میلادی) و قانون اساسی مشروطه (1285 هجری شمسی، 1906 میلادی) در باب "حقوق ملّت" بپردازد. بدین منظور، 17 سازه استدلالی-گفتمانی (گزینش لغات و تعبیرات خاص از طریق نام دهی) با استناد بر آراء انتقادی فرکلاف (Fairclough, 2015)، ون لیون (Van Leeuwen, 2008) و نیز مشخصه های بافت محور هایمز(Hymes, 1974) در دو متن حقوقی تفسیر و تبیین گردیدند. این پژوهش در بررسی کمّی مؤلفه های معنا-جامعه شناختی مستخرج از دو متن قانون اساسی و مشروطه از طریق اعمال فرمول مجذور خی به این نتیجه دست یافت که در میزان بهره گیری از مولفه های طرد، جذب و زیرشمول های آن ها در بازنمائی ایدئولوژی ینهان قدرت بین دو قانون اساسی، تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین، طبق تحلیل کیفی بین صورت بندی های ایدئولوژیک و طبیعی شدگی مناسبات قدرت، از طریق لایه های صوری زبان، ارتباطی دوسویه برقرار است. بنابراین، در فرایند تحلیل انتقادی این دو متن، به واسطه ی ساخت ایدئولوژیک استنتاج شده از دو متن حقوقی، میزان آگاهی بخشی، قدرت دهی و روابط نابرابر قدرت، از طریق بازنمائی سازه های استدلالی-گفتمانی، حاصل می گردد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Critical discourse Analysis of Power Relations in Two Persian Constitutional Laws in the Course of Twentieth Century
Language with a socially oriented nature is the realization of values, social behaviors and the ideologies which are located as the unsaid and implicit proposition in the linguistic structures and function of a text. Critical discourse analysis, like other hermeneutic methodologies, seeks to describe, interpret, and explain the language across texts and socially oriented contexts. The present study is an attempt to investigate power differences and inequalities which arise from discourse conventions, situational contexts and events in two different constitutional laws. These discursive conventions are ideologically-structured together within the order of the texts and discourse of constitutions to naturalize the power relations. The emphasis in this study is upon the discursive structures not as a product but as a dynamic process which is based on a triangulated theoretical framework of interrelated concepts and categories. This framework was used to project power relations and identify its linguistic manifestations between discourse and other social and forensic elements through sociocultural changes at societal (national), regional, institutional and organizational levels in the early and middle twentieth century. To meet the objectives of this research and find answers to the research questions both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to address the intended issues in this study. The qualitative data analysis which was employed by this study was based on critical discourse analysis inspired by Fairclough (2015), Hymes’s (1974) pragmatic approach. The quantitative data analysis used by the study was the Chi Square statistic which is commonly used for testing relationships between categorical variables. The null hypothesis was that no relationship exists on the 20 out of 50 categorical social constituents of Van Leeuwen (2008) in the population and they are independent. The findings of this study manifested how lexical and textual choices were intensified and made more visible some of the power relations across the language from the section of people's rights in both constitutions, Islamic Republic of Iran (1979) and Persian constitution (1906). In order to contrast and analyze the discursive and non-discursive structures of two aforementioned texts as well as interpret and determine the discursive features, the social conditions of the century and forensic contexts of these two texts were related to three different strata of the texts: the linguistic environment in which the discourse occurs; the level of social institution which constitutes a wider interpretation and explanation for the discourse; and the level of forensic context as a whole. It was believed that the social and forensic conditions which lighten the ideology, power relations and inequalities shape the linguistic production in the surface. Also, the pivots of gathering data were allocated to the social features proposed by Van Leeuwen (2008) such as the inclusion and the exclusion constituents as an evaluation method to contrast the lexical choices for language and power manifestations in texts such as “all and every versus none”, dishonor versus offensive, and law versus Islamic law (religious law). The social interaction of these features were manifested through the linguistic choices in the constitutions. The subcategories of inclusion and exclusion are as follows:
The quantitative data were analyzed (applying SPSS software) through calculating Chi square (the non-parametric statistics) to compare observed frequencies and expected frequencies of utilizing lexical choices in both texts. According to the research analysis, the theoretical framework put forward a multiple method approach which represented the relations between language, power and context as three interrelated systems, in which there is an ongoing dynamic interaction. Consequently, this research proposed and applied an eclectic selection of discursive tools, a pragmatic context-based approach and socially oriented criticism as the most appropriate method to analyze forensic contexts of the constitution for Islamic Republic of Iran (1979) and Persian constitution (1906). This method as the eclectic approach includes discourse analysis, critical approach and forensic linguistics which intersect with each other and partly overlap, using different options, yet functioning as one structured whole, whose members are interdependent. Based on the contrastive analysis, the two texts draw on different interpretation in approaching the forensic context to distinguish the ideology and power relations in deeper strata. According to the findings, ideological formulations of power along with unequal relations dictated lexical choices in the forensic text and manifested that discourse practices and orders of discourse represent ideological-discursive formulations along with power across linguistic disciplines. The power relations have special signiﬁcance in the execution of laws and ordinances of Islam and in achieving just relations in society. The power also plays a vital role toward the goal of the critically discursive structures.