توئیت ها می توانند کنش های اجتماعی را شکل دهند و جامعه را به سمت و سوی خاص، راهبری کنند بنابراین، تحلیل گفتمان توئیت ها و واکاوی زبان خاص آنها، نوع تعاملات میان کاربران توئیتر را هویدا می سازد. بنابراین، در مطالعه حاضر به بررسی توئیت های ترامپ پرداختم و آن ها را بر اساس روش تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی ون دایک مورد سخن کاوی قرار دادم. بدین منظور از ابتدای ژانویه تا انتهای مارچ 2018، حدود 400 توئیت از صفحه شخصی دونالد ترامپ؛ رئیس جمهور وقت آمریکا، مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت و با مد نظر قرار دادن نشانه ها و عناصر زبان شناختی مدل ون دایک به تبیین و تفسیر داده ها پرداخته شد. یافته ها نشان می دهند که ترامپ، در بخش مربوط به معنا از عناصر زبان شناختی زیادی همچون: قطب بندی، تعمیم دادن، مبالغه، خلاف واقع، ایجاد فاصله، مفهوم تلویحی و پیش انگاری، استناد و ارجاع، تضاد، مقوله بندی، مقایسه، مغالطه و حسن تعبیر استفاده می کند. ترامپ مقوله استدلال را با مغالطه کاری جبران می کند. او در مقوله سبک، به واژه گزینی و حتی حذف تعمدی بعضی از واژگان می پردازد. یافته ها همچنین به طور غیر مستقیم نشان می دهند که کاربران توئیتر، بطور دائم در معرض گفتمان های ایدئولوژیک قرار دارند و این گفتمان ها در جامعه، فرایند اثرگذاری خودشان را با سرعت طی می کنند و پایه گذار نظریه های اجتماعی می شوند و نقش تعیین کننده ای در نحوه زندگی و دیدگاه افراد یک گروه یا روابط بین گروهی دارند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Critical Discourse Analysis of Trump’s tweets based on Van Dijk Model
Twitter has changed the way by which information and data are circulated among a lot of users. Most of them are spreading through the societies, because certain thoughts and ideas are going to be imposed. Authorities have found this great powerful tool can successfully make common people make decisions as they wish to do. It seems that More than 500 million tweets are sent daily from 320 million active users across the world and it increases everyday(Twitter.com). These unbelievable amount of tweets can create new groups and shape new ideologies among active users. A widespread stream of quickly communicated suppositions and thoughts might lead to uncontrollable event and supervise the life style of millions of people around the world. It might also interfere with political affairs and drastic changes happen due to intentional spread thoughts and put policy makers in severe troubles. Amazingly, journalists make use of this tool as a monitoring system to find private and fascinating news about celebrities and famous sportsmen and women. They want to feed their medias enough firsthand information to attract a lot of readers and users. They want to sell more, if they can have direct access to popular figure’s twitter page, their missions are completely achieved; that is why tweeter is important to them.
The present study aims at studying and analyzing some of the issues raised by critical discourse analytical approach to the study of speeches, e.g. tweets. Since social networks have given a lot of opportunities to people put forward, acquire, express and reproduce their views, thoughts, ideologies and even their own daily routine activities largely by text or talk, a discourse analytical study of these language interactions seem to be necessary and most relevant. The more people become familiar with social media, the less they are vulnerable to be misled by indecent authorities. As present societies are now experiencing different ways for language interactions, the role and the influence of social networks, e.g. twitter, are undeniable and need to be analyzed. Many researches have studied Trump’s rhetoric quantitatively and qualitatively in social networks. The study of the tweets has made the linguists believe that twitting is a kind of social action and leads to processing social issues and if tweet lexicons are chosen appropriately, they can have big effect on followers’ decisions and causes shaping ideological groups. Houston and colleagues (1393) firmly believe that tweets can form social actions and guide the societies towards certain directions. The discourse analysis of tweets will reveal the type of interactions that twitter users have. It can also represent the way by which knowledge and power are produced. In other words, speech order, discourse and discourse analysis are to be seen as social productions that have changing and dynamic forces, they can have influences over social values and interactions, whether positive or negative (Ziahosseiny, 1391, p.97). Of course, this kind of discourse analysis has to be certainly social -critical, because it has to find the roots of social problems (Ziahosseiny, 1391, p.98). That is why I have made use of critical discourse analysis to clarify the ways by which realities are represented in social networks. Although, in this paper, the main attention has been given to the discourse analysis, its theoretical structure is based on different disciplines, especially on Van Dijk triangulation of discourse, cognition and society; they are necessary for analyzing sociolinguistics phenomena. Social sciences and philosophy have made the best use of this framework, it can critically explain social actions. It can also play an important role against the traditional approaches to social evets, those approaches cannot fully and adequately elaborate on the sociocognitive nature and structures of ideologies and their discursive reproduction.
In the present study, Trump’s tweets are analyzed based on aforementioned considerations related to Van Dijk model. To do that, 400 Trump’s tweets from his twitter page, between January and March 2018, were studied. Then, based on linguistic signs and strategies put forward by Van Dijk (2003 and 2006) the tweets were analyzed carefully. Those linguistic signs and strategies are: classification, polarization, generalization, distancing, implications, hyperbole, counterfactual, contrast, lexicalization, evidentiality, comparison, fallacy and euphemism. The findings show that Trump uses these strategies to create his own ideology. They also demonstrate that Trump makes use of hyperbole instead of logical reasoning. The data indirectly prove that tweeter followers are constantly exposed to new ideologies; the dialogues have their own prompt influences on societies, make new social theories, play basic roles in people’s life style and create new ideologies in groups.