نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی دانشکده ادبیات دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی ، دانشکده ادبیات، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

3 گروه تاریخ، دانشکده ادبیات، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

چکیده

آموزش زبان انگلیسی بستری مناسب و ظرفیتی مغفول برای تحقق اهداف تعلیم و تربیت است. محتوای آموزش زبان انگلیسی در ایران به دلیل اتخاذ یا الگوگیری از محتواهای بازار جهانی که بیشتر مبتنی بر تفکرات مادی گرایانه و لیبرالیستی می باشند، در تعارض آشکار با هدف اصلی تعلیم و تربیت اسلامی، که رسیدن به حیات طیبه است، می باشد. براساس متون قرآنی تفکر در مخلوقات به عنوان آیات الهی از قدم های اولیه در جهت نیل به حیات طیبه می باشد. در این راستا برای تولید محتوا، موضوع طبیعت، و به طور خاص عنصر آب، که یکی از منابع اصلی تفکر، قابل فهم و در دسترس برای همه انسان ها است، انتخاب شد و چگونگی پرداختن به آن در آیات مربوط به آب در قرآن کریم و تفاسیر نور، نسیم حیات و تسنیم مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج این تحقیق در قالب رهنمودهایی برای تولید محتوا بر اساس تصویرها و مفاهیمی که قرآن کریم در این آیات به انسان ارائه کرده است تنظیم شده اند و قالب "بنگر، بیاندیش و زندگی کن" به عنوان طرح اصلی درس پیشنهاد شده است که طبق آن تصویری از طبیعت توصیف می شود، انسان دعوت به تفکر و عبرت از آن می شود و سپس آموزه ها و مفاهیم آن با زندگی پیوند می خورد. در هر یک از تصاویراز طریق سبک و سیاق زبان قرآن که شامل پرسشگری، تخاطب، استفاده از داستان و تمثیل، و واژه های همنشین می شود، می توان مفاهیم اساسی همچون توحید و معاد را در محتوا ارائه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

An Quranic approah toward developing materials for English langauge teaching: the concept of water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nargess Nourizadeh 1
  • Sue-san Ghahremani Ghajar 2
  • Shahla Bakhtiari 3

1 Department of English language and literature, literature faculty, Al-Zahra university, Tehran, Iran

2 department of English language and literature, Literature faculty, Al-zahra university, tehran, Iran

3 Department of history, Literature faculty, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

We have been teaching English in Iran for decades now; however, the materials used at schools and in institutes have been adopted from or affected by the commercial textbooks published by the Western world. The themes, topics, and the lexical networks dispose learners toward internalizing secular and materialistic values. Although there has been an attempt on the part of Iranian material developers to detach from the inconsistencies of the commercial materials with Islamic and Iranian values, the ideal Islamic life reflected in the Fundamental Reform Document of Education has rarely received due attention.
Moving toward such a lifestyle demands a harmony among all the parts of the educational system, including all the different subjects and their corresponding materials and methods. However, English language courses have remained unaffected by Islamic teachings and have focused on the lowest level of life without considering the critical questions regarding the philosophy of life.
One of the main steps toward understanding the purpose of life in the Glorious Quran is to look around at the nature which is one of the richest sources of understanding for people in Islamic thought and contemplate about it. Therefore, in this research, the verses about nature in the Glorious Quran, specifically the ones about water as the element of life and the source of all creatures' living, were studied carefully to find out how the divine language of Quran reminds people of the purpose of life by referring them to the natural phenomena.
Accordingly, the verses from the Glorious Quran related to the subject of water, including verses containing the words "water", "rain", "spring", "river", and "the sea", along with their interpretations in Tasnim (Javadi Amoli, 2012), Nasime Hayat (Bahrampour, 2013), and Noor (Gharaati, 2009), were checked and analyzed. In these verses, first a picture from the nature is described and explained in carefully chosen words and then people are urged to think about it. These verses also refer to the people's responsibility and what they should do in different contexts and situations and try to help them understand how they should manage their likes and dislikes according to God's words.
The pictures were taken from the verses of the Glorious Quran and organized into four images including "life-giving water", relating to the fact that rain from the sky gives life to the dead land and brings back hope to people, "creation from water", which is about water as the main element of life from which a great percentage of the creatures' body is made, "a divine living from the sky: the water we drink, the food we eat", reminding people of the source of whatever they have and need for life, and at last "such a short life it is", which refers to the picture shown in some verses of a dead land which is brought back to life through rain, the greenness created, and how soon it changes to something like straw which is spread all over with the wind.
For the purpose of developing materials, these pictures were summarized into sentences from the holy Quran with a list of words from the same verses, which together will take thoughts closer to the concepts intended by the Glorious Quran. In these scenes, pictured through words for people, they are reminded that it is God who has created and controls everything and He is the One who is praiseworthy. This is referred to as the foundational concept of "Tawhid" or the oneness of God which has a leading role in different aspects of life and stands against the positivistic view toward the natural phenomena assumed to be bestowed upon us by Mother Nature. Furthermore, people are reminded about death and the life afterwards by being strongly advised to look at the death and life happening around in spring, when the earth gets green. These two concepts are fundamental in Islamic ideology of life and determine every aspect of life style; therefore, the purpose of materials should be to delineate these concepts and their applications.
The language of the Glorious Quran has presented these concepts in beautiful stories, metaphors, and similes, in all of which words beautifully go together to serve the purpose of teaching man the divine concepts essential to both worldly and spiritual life. Moreover, man is asked questions to rise from the death of ignorance and will be challenged to think by being addressed in these verses.
Based on these findings, the units in the materials can be organized around the structure of "look, think, and live", in which learners will be shown a picture from the nature, descriptions of which should be worded according to the words and sentence from the Glorious Quran. Some questions are also suggested for each picture which can be formed into a writing or speaking task in class, which are Tawhid- and Maa'd-based. These questions can help learners relate these concepts to their real life, broaden their views toward nature, and deepen their thoughts by stepping further from getting mere enjoyment and worldly benefits from the nature.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Material development
  • English language teaching
  • the ideal Islamic life
  • Nature
  • Water