نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو

2 دانشگاه

چکیده

زبان عربی از جمله زبان های سامی است و به دلیل زبان دین و مذهب دارای سخنوران بسیار است. زبان انگلیسی از جمله زبان های هند و اروپایی است این زبان، زبان علم و تکنولوژی است و از سوی دیگر به خاطر سخنوران خویش و جهانی بودن، دارای جایگاه ویژه‌ای است. این پژوهش به مقایسه فرایندها در زبان عربی و انگلیسی می‌پردازد و سعی بر این است که به بیان شباهت‌ها و تفاوت‌ها در فرایندها مشارکین اصلی و عناصر پیرامونی بپردازد و می‌کوشد که بدین سوالات پاسخ دهد. چگونگی تعریف فعل و فرایند و گذرایی در دو زبان، تفاوت‌ها و شباهت‌ها در نوع فرایندها. دستور نقش‌گرایی هلیدی با فرض اینکه الگوهای تجربه در قالب فرایندها و نظام گذرایی در زبان بازنمایی می‌شود، فرایندهای شش‌گانه را مطرح ساخت. فرایند اصلی به مادی، ذهنی و رابطه‌ای تقسیم می‌شوند و فرایندهای فرعی به کلامی، رفتاری و وجودی، بررسی کتاب‌های دستور سنتی و زبان شناسی نوین حاکی از این مطلب است که اختلاف دیدگاه در بیان گذرایی در اصطلاحات و نامگذاری است. تعدی و گذرایی به یک معنا مورد استفاده قرار گرفته اند و تفاوت اساسی در فرایند ربطی و کلامی است که در زبان انگلیسی در قالب فرایند ربطی ذکر می شود درحالی که در زبان عربی فرایندی وجود ندارد. و فرایند کلامی نیز در زبان عربی محذوف است و دارای جانشینی به اسم حرف ندا است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The comparative study of transitivity and processes in the Arabic and English languages

نویسندگان [English]

  • tayebe sarfarazi 1
  • Ahmad pashazanos 2

1 student

2 university

چکیده [English]

The comparative study of transitivity and processes in the Arabic and English languages
Tayebeh sarfarazi , Ahmad pasha zanus
Received: 2018/10/30
Accepted: 2000/00/00
Abstract
The Arabic language is among Semitic languages and because of being the religion language has huge number of speakers. the English language is among indo- European and it is science and technology language, furthermore for being spoken and being global has significant status. In new theories, Halliday's grammar is compiled with functional objectives. Clause is the main unit in Halliday's grammar and each utterance which is concentrated around a verbal group is a Clause. He has studied ideational, intersectional and textual meta-functions in his grammar. Textual meta-function is represented in theme and rhyme. intersectional meta-functions in the relation between speaker and addressee. ideational meta-function in transitivity and processes. In his systematic grammar and transitivity structure, the process is the origin of every event and is represented by ideational meta- function. in Ideational meta- function, language arranges person experience. Processes empirically are the core and the center of a clause. A clause has participant and other circumstantial elements which effect on the amount of transitivity. Holliday's functional grammar has paid vital attention to the meaning. based on assumption that experience patterns are DE codified in processes and transitivity, he has posed sextet processes. main process is subdivided to material, mental and relational. Secondary process is divided to verbal, behavioral and existential. Main Participants of these processes are named differently such as actor in material, sensor in mental carrier in relational, sayer in verbal, behaver in behavioral and existent in existential. This inquiry studies comparatively processes in the Arabic and English languages and tries to express differences and similarities in processes, main participants and circumstantial elements. It makes an effort to answer these questions: definition of processes and verbs, transitivity in two languages, differences and similarities in process type. Structuralism believes that all verbs are transitive or intransitive as much as and in the transitive verb the action extents from verb to subject and object, but in functional grammar as Halliday and mattsin have expressed: the more participants and circumstantial elements, the more transitivity. The study of traditional grammar and modern linguistic in two languages shows that dissension in transitivity is in terminology and naming and in Arabic and English languages, it is used in the same meaning, but in the Arabic language in addition to be in context, there are some special forms make the verb be transitive or intransitive. e.g. Adding some prefixes, doubling a letter… can make a verb transitive or vice versa that is very important. In the Arabic language, transitivity is for verb and it is said transitive verb, but in practice whole clause is involved in belonging to verb as in the English language it is extended to the whole clause and The clause is transitive or intransitive. Unlike the Arabic language, there are no processes in the English language that have three objects leading to more transitivity and the first object and second are direct and indirect respectively. There is no category like Halliday's ones in the Arabic language only Mental processes in Arabic language are separated from others based on having two or three objects and they have been named (qolob) that means some sing related to heart, but in taking a clause as a phenomenon are the same. crucial differences are in relational and verbal processes. In the English language, there is relational process which is mentioned in the clause and is like other processes, but it doesn’t exist in Arabic language. The theme and rhyme can clarify the meaning of the clause. As Halliday and matssin have described clearly in their book: introduction to functional grammar. In some cases, there is a relational process with different names. in the Arabic language, verbal processes are deleted and substituted by interjections, but in some others are same and can be mentioned. About existential process, both languages are different. In the English language the word (there) fills the subject place but originally it isn’t subject. in Arabic, we have existential verb with subject like other processes and even some relational verbs can be used as existential when they are complete. It means when they don’t need another participant to completed. Some terminologies in functional grammar have different expressions in the Arabic language. e.g. attribute in material processes is (Hall) in Arabic language whereas aims the same, so circumstantial elements in both languages, despite of different expressions have their effects on clause and consequently on transitivity.
Key words: English language, Arabic language, functional grammar, transitivity process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • English language
  • Arabic language
  • functional grammar
  • transitivity process