زندگی همه ما انسانها چنان درهم تنیده با زبان و استفاده از آن است که بسیاری از اوقات زندگی بدون آن قابل تصور نیست و تاثیر آن بر زندگی اجتماعی، سیاسی و فرهنگی غیرقابل انکار بنظر می رسد. از سویی دیگر، مترجمان نیز در انجام وظایف خود چنان در محاصره افکار و باورها و ایدئولوژیهای گوناگون هستند که خودآگاه یا ناخودآگاه در عمل ترجمه تحت تاثیر آن دست به برگرداندن زبان مبداء به زبان مقصد می زنند. این مساله بیشتر در کار مترجمانی مشهود است که در رسانه های مختلف کار می کنند و می بایست ناگزیر از ایدئولوژی حاکم بر محل کار خود تبعیت کنند و این خود می تواند بر کلی ترین و جزئی ترین جنبه های کاری آنها اثر گذار باشد.این پژوهش بدنبال بررسی رابطه بحث انگیز بین ترجمه و ایدئولوژی با تمرکز بر ترجمه شفاهی همزمان سخنرانی رئیس جمهور ایران در سازمان ملل در سال 2017 توسط دو کانال پرس تی وی ایران و فرانس 24 فرانسه بوده است تا معلوم گردد که آیا ایدئولوژی این مترجمان بر روش کارشان تاثیر داشته است یا خیر. بدین منظور این دو ترجمه از سخنرانی حسن روحانی از لحاظ واژگانی و نحوی و سبکی با یکدیگر مقایسه شده اند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد ترجمه هر دو مترجم شفاهی این دو شبکه خبری تلویزیونی به شکل عمدی یا غیرعمدی تحت تاثیر ایدئولوژی بوده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Ideological Investigation of Interpretation of Iranian president’s Speech in the UN: English Interpretation of Presstv Channel of Iran and France 24 of France
Life of people is so interrelated with language that life without it is not imaginable and its effect on social, political and cultural life seems to be undeniable as it is observed in many daily lives and events. On the other hand, translators and interpreters are surrounded with thoughts, beliefs and ideologies and do their task of changing a source language to a target one under the influence of them, consciously or unconsciously. This is evident in performance of translators and interpreters who work in various media and must obey dominant ideologies of their workplaces and this can affect their macro/micro-strategies utilized by them in their jobs.
Translation and interpretation as two processes that require rewriting have sufficient background for distancing themselvesfrom reality and facts and guiding mindsets towards a specific direction. Indeed, translation is regarded as a mirror that does not reflect light, but produces it. This means that novel ideologies are produced in translation task.
The fact that dominant ideology belongs to dominant classes in majority of societies causes us to seek ways and approaches that help to consolidate and reinforce this ideology. Each translator and interpreter tries to impose their ideology through some realities and facts, consciously or unconsciously. The imposed ideology may not work systematically and consistently in conducting personal translation projects, but when such projects are administered in the media that belong to dominant ideologies it seems that translators’ minds are consciously involved in stabilizing the prevailing hegemony.
Ideology is a subject that requires particular attention paid by researchers of translation studies. Lots of theoreticians have even claimed that translation is a conflict point for ideologies and each translation is ideological. Ideology itself is a combination of action-oriented beliefs and regarding the relation between ideology and translation, it can be indicated in each level of translation process that if linguistic considerations come to conflict with ideological ones, the latter win.
Translation or interpretation are not just transferring meaning from a language to another and can have a considerable share among rival ideologies. Translation and interpretation are ideological-wise since they can import a collection of values and beliefs (relating to historical eras and social positions) to a target culture. In line with serving domestic interests of target languages, translation or interpretation chooses an ideological solution for linguistic and cultural differences of a source text. Even some theorists have discussed the interaction between ideology and translation and believe that ideology has an important role in translation act and due to the fact that translation and interpretation and serve political aims, they affect choice of texts for translation, translation strategies and propagation of some translated texts. Translation is also considered as the most influential form of rewriting because it can be an indicator of a writer’s image and their works in another culture and can move them beyond cultural borders. Therefore, translation can be utilized as a tool for expressing a translator’s approval or disapproval towards any ideology. Indeed, translation means creating new readership for a source text.
This article aimed to investigate the controversial and contentious relation between translation and ideology regarding simultaneous English interpretation of Iranian president Hassan Rouhani’s speech in the UN in 2017 conducted in Presstv channel of Iran and France 24 channel of France in order to clarify whether ideology of these interpreters affected the interpreters’ interpretations or not.
This speech was aired in numerous international TV channels as it was considered as a response to American president Trump’s speech against Iran in the UN the earlier day and many channels interpreted Iranian president’s speech simultaneously due to its significance and sensitivity. To this end, their interpretations were compared to each other, utilizing Critical Discourse Analysis and Van Dijk’s theoretical background. The results of this study indicated that both interpretations carried out by these news channels were intentionally or unintentionally under influence of their ideologies.
Ideological differences of investigated interpretations prove the fact that France 24 interpreter has deleted or added some parts of Iranian president’s speech and it might be caused by increasing reinforcement of Iranphobia by Western news channels, while interpreter of Presstv channel has tried his best to remain loyal to contents of the speech and highlight ideas and comments of Rouhani with possible minor alterations. Consequently, results of this study can confirm existence of ideological conflicts between Iran and Western countries and these differences might be caused by ideological backgrounds of these two interpreters. As Nord (2003) believes any decision making in translation is consciously or unconsciously affected by ideological criteria.