تنوع کاربرد جملات تعجبی در زبان عربی و معادلیابی متنوع آنها در زبان فارسی بیانگر اهمیت پژوهش حاضر است. امروزه اسلوبهای تعجبی سماعی نسبت به اسلوبهای قیاسی پرکاربردتر بوده و کمتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است؛ غافل از آنکه خود میتوانند از ساختهای معینی تبعیت کنند.
این پژوهش بر آن است تا بر اساس 460 جملهی تعجبی در دو کتاب «الشمس فی یوم غائم» و «زهرة العمر»، پس از توصیف جملههای تعجبی با تکیه بر تقابل بین زبان فارسی و عریی و معادلیابی، ساخت تعجب سماعی و نیز کاربرد آنها در زبان گفتار و نوشتار و تفاوتها و شباهتهای آن دو را مورد بررسی قرار دهد .
نتایج نشان میدهد که سیاق و آهنگ در تشخیص ساختار در زبان گفتار، مهمترین نقش را ایفا میکند. آرزو، قسم و گاه ضرب المثلها و اصطلاحات عامیانه، تکیه و تأکید از دیگر موارد پرکاربرد است. در زبان نوشتار نیز ساختهای تأکیدی نقش پررنگتری داشته، جملات با تنوع بیشتری آمده است. در این میان جملههای دال بر مقدار و مقایسه، منفی، اسلوبهای تأکیدی و گاها در جملات خبری منفی از قبیل اسالیب حصر، استثنا، تقابل و تباین حائز اهمیت است. در معادلیابی – بهویژه در زبان گفتار - حرف »که» نقش مؤثری دارد. به نظر میرسد در زبان نوشتار عربی بیشتر این جملات با ژرف ساخت بهکار میروند و در زبان فارسی غالبا با رو ساخت معادلیابی میشوند. این رو ساختها در زبان گفتار بیشتر بهکار میروند.
کلیدواژه: تعجب سماعی - فارسی - عربی - گفتار - نوشتار - معادلیابی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Reviewing the variation of using wondering sentences in Arabic language
In contemporary Arabic language the auricular exclamatory styles are more widely used and diverse compared to the deductive styles but still less attention has paid to that; and the researchers are unaware that these type of structures can follow the determined structures. This matter along with the diverse use of these type of sentences in Arabic language and its equivalent finding in Persian language are as the reasons of the importance of the present study.
On the other hand, it seems that there are similarities and differences between the structure of these sentences as well as their equivalence in the language of speech and writing. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify and introduce the structure of these sentences in order to find an appropriate answer to this question: what is the difference between the exclamatory styles in the Arabic syntax and what is found in the language of stories and dramas closer to the language of speech. Another question is that: what differences are in the used styles in the writing language for this structure? Reviewing the written grammar books in accordance with the old syntactic, shows their attention to the pronunciation and their ignorance to the meaning of words. Of course, new studies have been toward semantic implications and the production of meaning. By taking advantage of linguistic achievements in syntax and rhetoric, they have tried to consider sentences and to investigate the vocabulary in the combinations of sentence and/or the style of the text. Therefore, based on Jorjanii, they have expanded the context of studying on the syntax to insert the stylish and structural meaning into that. Based on these studies, it can be concluded that, in contemporary Arabic language, the auricular styles are more applicable in comparison to the deductive styles; and a special order can be considered for them in such a way that using the auricular word to refer to them is not appropriate.
Old rhetoric in Arabic language also has used "exclamatory" as secondary meanings of sentences in numerous lexical compounds which are beyond the syntactic principle. Although this a partial study. According to them, "exclamatory" is a rhetorical concept arising from the order of the compounds, certain terms and specific expressions. Today, interested scholars to the rhetoric in the framework of the text style, by using the linguistic achievements have investigated this structure in the inspirational and declarative sentences. After conducting these studies, we investigated the matter that emotional sentences, and especially exclamatory sentences, are widely used in both speaking and writing languages.
Accordingly, this study is based on the classification of 460 exclamatory sentences in two books including "Al-Shams Phi Yaum Ghaem" - that is closed to the speech language- and "Zahrat al-Omr" -that is based on the written language-. The purpose of this study is to investigate describing auricular exclamatory sentences and then based on the contrast between the Persian language and Arabic language as well as finding equivalents, making and using them in the speaking and writing languages to be investigated; so that the similarities and differences of them to be found.
The speaking language is closer to the affection, and based on its style, it is necessary to be used shorter, with more feelings, emotions, emphasis and exclamatory in comparison with the writing language. Their combined meaning can be detected only if the word and/or the phrases to be inserted in the particular style of the text. The power of their. We thought the variety of these sentences in the speaking language is more, but a review on the selected 190 sentences suggested that this is not true. The results show that the harmony and style play the most important role in recognizing the structure of the speech language. Wishing, swearing, relying, emphasizing, proverbs and slang terms are used a lot. In finding equivalent - especially in the speaking language - the word of "that" plays an important role. It seems that in the writing Arabic language, most of these sentences are used with profound making; and in the Persian language often the equivalents are found by superficial making. This matter is seen more in the speaking language.
In the review of the written language, 270 sentences were also examined. What is important in this regard is the role of affirmation words and styles in the emotional sentences allocating the most statistics to themselves. In the writing language, the emphasized made sentences have more significant role; and more diversity is seen in the sentences. In the meantime, the sentences implicating quantity as well as comparison, negative and emphasizing styles that sometimes are seen in the format of negative declarative sentences such as exclusive, exception, contrast and inconsistency styles are important as well.