تحلیل گفتمان از اندیشههای زبانشناسان، نشانهشناسان و محققان هرمونتیک سرچشمه میگیرد. این شیوه از تحلیل با بررسی بافت متن و بافت موقعیتی، گفتمان حاکم بر جامعه و فکر مسلط بر آن را تبیین مینماید. مجموعه داستان کوتاه «الضحایا» نوشتۀ ذنون ایوب نویسندۀ عراقی، بازنمودی از واقعیات و معضلات جامعۀ سنتی عراق است که تصویری جهتمند از فرایندهای ایدئولوژیکی حاکم بر جامعه را ارائه میدهد؛ اهمیت این تصاویر بازنمایی شـده از آن حیث است که فقر فرهنگی را در جامعه ترسیم میکنند؛ و شخصیتهایی در این داستانها به تصویر در میآیند که بازنمودی از شخصیتهای حقیقی جامعهاند و رفتاری منطبق بر کلیشههای نادرست موجود در جامعه خویش را به نمایش میگذارند.
مقاله حاضر با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و در قالب تحلیل گفتمان بر آنست به این سوال پاسخ دهد که چگونه نظام یا نظامهاى گفتمانى حاکم بر جامعه، بستری برای تقویت و بازتولید فقر فرهنگی در جامعه سنتی عراق شدهاند؟
عنوان مقاله [English]
Reading the discursive origins of cultural poverty in the short stories Znoon ayoub (A case study: the series of "Al-zhaya")
The Mainstream Discourse Analysis in Short Stories of Xenon Ayub
(Case Study: Al-Changiya)
Discourse analysis originates from the ideas of linguists, hermeneutics analysts and researchers. This method explains the analysis by examining the textual context and situational context, the dominant discourse on society, and the dominant thought on it. The short story of Al-Changiya, written by Iraqi writer Xenon Ayub, is a representation of the realities and problems of the traditional Iraqi society, which provides a directional image of the ideological processes governing society; the significance of these illustrated images is that of cultural poverty In the society, and the characters depicted in these stories represent a representation of the true personalities of the society and display behavior consistent with the false stereotypes in their society. The present paper uses a descriptive-analytic method in the form of discourse analysis to answer the question of how the discourse-based system or systems governing the community have become a bedrock for the promotion and reproduction of cultural poverty in traditional Iraqi society.
Key words: Discourse analysis, Text context, Situational context, Short story, Xenon Ayub.
In the field of cultural studies that encompasses a large part of society, the study of literary fiction as a medium through critical studies and the recognition of the culture of a society is of considerable importance. For this reason, we analyzed the discourse of the story of Al-Changiya, which is related to the cultural context of the traditional Iraqi community.
The theme of the Al-Changiya story series provides an opportunity to enter the inner layers of the cultural problems of women and men in the traditional Iraqi society, and the author, by illustrating the routine social relations, a simple language and a thriller for complex issues in relationships of human is chosen; by analyzing the lives of the characters of these stories, he will have some kind of critical and social perspective. In analyzing these stories, we will see that cultural poverty is a pervasive problem in the feminine and masculinity discourses in the story, and it is not just for the lower classes of society. In this collection of stories, life is suppressed, suicidal characters prefer to survive, the personality is on his own suspicion to preserve dignity, and the other inevitably leads to a tidal vortex but the common point of all these stories is a bitter and fatal fate, which is the result of incorrect and false cultural beliefs embodied in the minds of the patriarchal society. The most important cultural expressions that have meant the meaning of cultural poverty in the "Al-Changiya" collection are: superstition and the belief in magic, discrimination and adultery, and belief in the superiority of men over women, the masculinity of science, maternal look to woman, poverty and financial dependency of woman, forced marriage, violence and ultimately hot shame, all of which are traversed by traditional and patriarchal society, which incorporate gender stereotypes from the beginning in the minds of each man and woman. In other words, these discourses show the plurality of power relations in the context of the story and, consequently, in the society of the Xenon Age, which is inevitable due to the kind of education, low cultural level, social connection, etc. and even dominated by society in many cases. The dominant discourse on each of the stories of this set of poverty is social culture and false customs, which all take place on the basis of people's words and sentiments, not through the use of reason. The review of Xenon's stories in this collection illustrates the fact that his stance in his stories is neither patriarchal nor feminist, therefore, he did not have any effort to stabilize the stereotypes. Rather, it tries to inform the audience through narrative, to counteract cultural poverty and incorrect beliefs and traditions that has left women in the dark and kept them in shadow, and in many cases they denied social rights and, on the other hand, the negative consequences of some of the stereotypes that have mutually challenged man's life.
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