نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

2 گروه زبان انگلیسی- دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی- دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

3 SIL International

چکیده

توصیه­ های پزشکی فارسی، به عنوان یکی از حوزه ­های گفتمان غیرروایی، تاکنون مورد توجه پژوهشگران قرار نگرفته­ اند. از این رو، پژوهش حاضر به بررسی و مقایسة کاربرد ابزارهای «پیش­ فرض»، «تقویت» و «تضعیف»توصیه با درنظر گرفتن شدت نسبی این ابزارها در کتاب­های نسخه‌نویسی پزشکی فارسی و مجله‌های برخط پزشکی فارسی می‌پردازد. به این منظور از  الگوی لوینسون (Levinsohn, 2015) در بررسی متون غیرروایی بهره گرفته شده‌است. داده­ های پژوهش،  از 100 متن کتاب­های نسخه‌نویسی پزشکی فارسی و 100 متن مجله‌های برخط پزشکی فارسی گردآوری و گزینش شدند. همچنین نرم افزار آماری اس. پی. اس. اس برای تحلیل داده ­ها به کار ­برده ­شد. بر پایة یافته‌های پژوهش، نتایجی به دست آمد. نخست اینکه، «دستورالعمل­های بدون فعل» و «صورت­های امری» از ابزارهای پیش­ فرض بودند. همچنین «باید» و «بهتر است» به ترتیب در میان صورت­های «تقویت» و «تضعیف» توصیه در کتاب­های نسخه ­نویسی پزشکی فارسی و مجلات برخط پزشکی فارسی به شمار می‌آیند. دوم اینکه، با توجه به توزیع ابزارهای «پیش­ فرض»، صورت­های «تقویت» و «تضعیف» توصیه در دو پیکره پژوهش تفاوت معناداری مشاهده گردید. در نهایت، عواملی مانند «برتری دانش پزشک»، «نوع متون توصیه» و «جایگاه توصیه ­ها در متن» بر انتخاب نوع توصیه­ ها در متون پزشکی فارسی تاثیرگذار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

An Investigation of the Hortatory Texts in Persian Medical Discourse

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seddigheh Zeynali Dastuyi 1
  • Abbas Ali Ahangar 1
  • pakzad Yousefiyan 2
  • .Stephen H Levinsohn 3

1 Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan

2 English Department- Faculty of Literature and Humanities -University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

3 SIL International

چکیده [English]

Longacre (1996) recognizes four major discourse genres including narrative, procedural, behavioral and expository discourse. He considers exhortations to be a sub-branch of behavioral discourse, which “deals with how people did or should behave” (Longacre 1996, p. 9, in Dooley & Levinsohn, 2000).
Accordingly, this study is going to analyze Persian hortatory texts of two genres: Persian General Practitioners’ Books (GPBs) and Online Medical Journals (OMJs). In particular, it looks at the relative potency of different forms of exhortation and distinguishes between default, highlighted and backgrounded hortatory forms based on Levinsohn (2015).
The corpora of this study consisted of 100 texts from two written Persian GPBs and 100 texts from two Persian OMJs. The addressees of the GPBs were general practitioners and students of medical sciences, though writers sometimes directed their exhortations to patients. The addressees of OMJs were the public with some medical knowledge. Our initial step to conduct this research was to classify each sentence as an exhortation or setting it aside as a supportive material; then, 2) listing the different hortatory devices used; 3) counting the frequency of each one; 4) then deciding: a) which one was default, and b) whether using the others had the effect of highlighting or backgrounding the exhortations concerned; and 5) analyzing the statistical significance of the findings through the use of SPSS software version 24.
Results of the research indicated that the default devices and the most frequent hortatory devices used in GPBs were “verbless commands” (in the prescription sections of the GPB texts) and “imperatives” (in non-prescription parts of GPBs). Highlighted forms of exhortations found were “must” and “it is necessary” in GPBs. Backgrounded forms of exhortations in GPBs included “it is better”, “it is recommended” and “indirect exhortations”. Example 1, 2 and 3 show the use of the default (verbless command), highlighted (bαyæd “must”) and backgrounded hortatory forms (it is better) in GPBs:
1)      bQrAj-e           control-e                      tQngi-j-e                      nQfQs
for                   controling-EZ               tightness-EP-EZ           breath
“For controlling shortness of breath”
-          Inhaler salbutamol    N=1                                                  2 puffs if necessary
-          Inhaler beclomethasone   N=1                           2 puffs every 6 hours
(Attar, 2016, p. 191, Bronchiectasis, PFP)
2)      kæpsul-e          /αmperαzol-rα bαyæd             betorekαmel     væ        qæbl   
capsule                  Omeprazole-OM         must                completely       and      before
/æz       qæzα                mæsræf            nemud                         /æz       ʤævidæn         væ
from    food                consumption    do.PAST.3SG             from    chewing           and
bαz                   kærd-æn-e                   kæpsul             bαjæd              /eʤtenαb        

open                do.PAST-INF-EZ       capsule                        must                avoidance

Sæv-æd
SUBJ.become.PRES-3SG
“Omeprazole capsule must be consumed fully before eating food. Chewing and opening the capsule must be avoided.”
(Ayati Firoozabadi and Fallah, 2015: 17, Tennis elbow, DPG) 
3)      behtær             /æst                              ʤæhæt-e         tæzriq-e           /epinefrin         /æz
better               be.PRES.3SG             for-EZ             injection-EZ    epinephrine      from
soræng-e         /ænsolin           /estefαde          Sæv-æd
syringe-EZ       insulin              use                   SUBJ.become.PRES-3SG
- “It is better to use Insulin Syringes for injecting Epinephrine.”
(Ayati Firoozabadi & Fallah, 2015. p. 99, Anaphylaxis, DPG)
The default device in OMJs was “imperative”. Highlighted hortatory forms found in OMJs were “must” and “it is necessary”, “imperatives used with immediately” and “it is highly recommended” were used, as well. Backgrounded hortatory forms in OMJs included “it is better”, “it is recommended” and “indirect exhortations”, “imperatives directed to 1st person plural”, “(it) is helpful”, “infinitives” and “very indirect exhortations”. Example 4, 5 and 6 illustrate the use of the default (imperatives), highlighted (hætmæn “must”) and backgrounded hortatory forms (infinitive):
4)      dær      suræt-e            dαSt-æn-e                    sαbeqe-j-e                    bimαri-j-e
in         form-EZ          have.PAST-INF-EZ    preexistence-EP-EZ    disease-EP-EZ
xαs                   jα         mæsræf-e                     dαru     be        pezeSk-e-tαn               
special             or         consumption-EZ         drug     to         physician-EZ-CLIT.3PL                    
/etelα/              dæh-id
information                 IMPER.give.PRES-2PL        
“If you have a special disease or consume some drugs, inform your physician.”
 (Angiography of coronary vessels, DWB, http://www.pezeshk.us/?p=31745)
5)      dær      suræt-i             ke         sαbeqe-j-e                    bimαri-hα-j-e              
in         form-INDEF   that      preexistence-EP-EZ    disease-PL-EP-EZ
/en/eqαdi-j-e    xun-i                dαr-id                          hætmæn         pezeSk-rα       
coagulation-EP-EZ     blood-INDEF have.PRES-2PL          must                physician-OM
motæle/           sαz-id
informed         IMPER.do.PRES-2PL
“If you have the pre-existence of blood coagulation, you must inform your physician.”
(Angiography of coronary vessels, DWB, http://www.pezeshk.us/?p=31745)
6)      kαheS-e                       mæsræf-e                     qæzα-hα-j-e                 hejvαn-i          
decreasing-EZ                   consumption-EZ         food-PL-EP-EZ          animal-ATTR
bexosus           guSt-e              qermez
specially          meat-EZ          red
“Decreasing the consumption of animal foods especially red meat.”
(Prevention from breast cancer, DWB)
Chi-square test results of the study confirmed significant differences between the application of the default, highlighted and backgrounded hortatory forms used in GPBs and OMJs. In addition, the results confirmed that the factors mentioned by Levinsohn (2015) affected the choice of hortatory forms in GPBs and OMJs; in this regard, the findings demonstrated that the “physician’s superior knowledge”, “the type of the hortatory texts”, “the position of the exhortations in the text”, “the degree of prominence each exhortation is to receive”, and “its scope” all influenced the form of exhortations chosen by the writers of GPBs and OMJs. Our study, further, reached some results contradictory with the ones obtained by Levinsohn (2015) which may be related to language- and culture-specificity and different discourse types studied by the authors of these studies:     

using “it is necessary” as a highlighted form of exhortation, not a backgrounding one as mentioned by Levinsohn (2015);
using “imperatives” directed to 3rd person with equal potency of “imperatives” directed to second person, despite the assertion stated by Levinsohn (2015) where he claims that “imperatives” directed to second person are more potent than “imperatives” directed to 3rd person; and finally,
revealing a different result in Persian medical texts from that of Levinsohn (2015) regarding the arrangement of highlighted forms of exhortations and backgrounded ones.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • exhortation devices
  • Persian general practitioners’ prescription books
  • Online medical journals
  • medical discourse
  • Levinsohn’s model

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