نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مترجمی زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

2 دانشجوی دکترای زبان شناسی همگانی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

جایگزینی یک واجِ زبان وام‌دهنده با شبیه‌ترین آوای موجود در زبان وام گیرنده «جایگزینی صدا» یا  «جایگزینی واج» نامیده می‌شود. واژه‌های بسیاری از زبان عربی وارد زبان فارسی و گویش‌های گوناگون آن شده‌اند که دارای دو نویسة «ق» و «غ» هستند. این دو نویسه که در زبان عربی به ترتیب به صورت‌ همخوان‌های ملازی انسدادی بی‌واک /q/ و سایشی واک‌دار /R/ تلفظ می‌شوند، در زبان فارسی معیار تلفظی یکسان دارند و هر دو به صورت همخوان ملازی انسدادی واک‌دار /G/ تلفظ می‌شوند. در واقع دو همخوان‌ /q/ و /R/  موجود در درون‎داد وام‌واژه‌های عربی با همخوان‌ انسدادی واک‌دار [G] در زبان فارسی معیار جایگزین می‌شوند. برخلاف فارسی معیار، در گویش رودباری (کرمان) همخوان /R/ وجود دارد. از این ‌رو، این همخوان با همخوان دیگری در برون‌داد جایگزین نمی‌شود. از  سویی  دیگر، در این گویش نه تنها همخوان بی‌واک /q/  بلکه جفت واک‌دارش یعنی [G] هم وجود ندارد. بنابراین، این همخوان در آغازۀ هجا در بافت پیش از واکه‌های پسین با همخوان [k] و در بافت پیش از واکه‌های غیرپسین با همخوان کامی  [c] جایگزین می‌شود. همچنین این همخوان در انتهای واژه‌ها با همخوان کامی  [c] جایگزین می‌گردد. این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی در چارچوب نظریۀ بهینگی (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004) انجام شده و هدف آن تبیین یک‌به‌یک فرایندهای اشاره­شده است. این تببین‌ها از طریق استدلال پیرامون محدودیت‌هایی که عامل رخداد این فرایندها هستند و رتبه‌بندی آن­ها انجام شده­است. همچنین، درپیوند با گویش رودباری، یک رتبه‌بندی نهایی که تبیین‌کننده جایگزینی همخوان ملازی  /q/ با همخوان‌های [k] یا  [c] در هر سه بافت مورد بررسی است، ارائه شده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Substitution of Uvular Consonants of Arabic Loanwords in Standard Persian and Roudbari Dialect: A Comparative Study Within The Framework of Optimality Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bashir Jam 1
  • Parya Razmdideh 2

1 Assistant Professor of English Translation Department, Shahrekord University

2 P.h D. candidate of general linguistics, University of Sistan & Baluchestan

چکیده [English]

1- Introduction
Many Arabic loanwords have been adapted by Persian and its numerous dialects.Some of theseloanwords have uvular consonants including the voiceless stop /q/ and the voiced fricative /R/ both of which were replaced by the single phone [G] in standard Persian. However, as /R/ is a phoneme in the Roudbari Persian dialect it is not replaced by any sound.This research aimed at explaining each of these sound substitution processes within the framework of Optimality Theory (Hereafter OT) put forward by Prince and Smolensky (1993/2004).
2- Methodology
The Roudbari data were collected by one of the researchers by recording the voices of several male and female native speakers. Then the data were analyzed to indentify the phonological processes and contexts in which they occurred. The phonological processes that occur in the substitution of uvular consonants of Arabic loanwords in standard Persian and Roudbari dialect were analyzed within the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/ 2004). In doing so, the constraints that caused these phonological processes were identified or formalized in case they did not exist in the OT literature.
3- Conclusion
Sound substitution is a process whereby a phoneme in a loanword is replaced by its closest phone in the borrowing language. In OT loanwords are subject to the same universal constraints; however their rankings are subject to the phonology of the borowing language.
    Many Arabic loanwords with uvular consonants including the voiceless stop /q/ and the voiced fricative /R/ have been adapted by Persian and its numerous dialects. Both of these consonants are replaced by a single consonant, the uvular voiced stop [G], in the standard Persian. Unlike the standard accent, /R/ is a phoneme in the Roudbari Persian dialect. Therefore, it is not replaced by any sound. However, neither /q/ nor /G/ exists in the Roudbari dialect phonemic inventory. Hence, /q/ in the syllable onsets of Arabic loanwords is replaced by [k] and [c] in environments preceding [+back] and [-back] vowels respectively. Besides, word- final /q/ is replaced by [c].It presents arguments in favor of constraint rankings which cause the occurances of these processes. Moreover, it comes up with a single inclusive ranking of constraints that is capable of explaining the replacement of Arabic /q/ by [k] and [c] in all the three environments in Roudbari dialect.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: sound substitution
  • pronunciation of Arabic loanwords
  • Persian phonology
  • Roudbari dialect
  • Optimality theory

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