نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی

چکیده

این تحقیق در چارچوب نظریه ادب به توصیف و تحلیل 5 واژه‌ و عبارت پرکاربرد مؤدبانه در زبان فارسی می‌پردازد. داده-ها از گفتار واقعی افراد از سنین و طبقات اجتماعی مختلف واز طریق مشاهده و یادداشت‌برداری در بافت‌های مختلفی چون خیابان، مراکز خرید، دانشگاه، مهمانی و غیره گرد‌آوری شده‌اند. قابل ذکر است که واژه‌ها و عبارات مؤدبانه همیشه به یک معنی نیستند و در بافت‌های مختلف کارکردهای متفاوتی دارند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که فارسی‌زبانان گفتار مؤدبانه را فقط برای انجام کنش‌های تهدید‌کننده وجهه به کار نمی‌برند، بلکه آن را جهت حفظ و تقویت وجهه و احترام به دیگران نیز به‌کار می‌گیرند؛ لازم به ذکر است که یکی از محدودیت‌های نظریه براون و لوینسون(1987) این است که ادب را با تلطیف کنش‌های تهدیدکننده وجهه توصیف می‌کنند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که عمده‌ترین استراتژی زیربنایی واژ‌ه‌ها و عبارات مؤدبانه، استراتژی ادب منفی است که افراد بیشتر آن را با بافت‌های رسمی یا نیمه‌رسمی به‌کار می‌برند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Describing and analysing of some polite words in Persian based on Brown and Levinson’ s politeness theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahla Sharifi
  • Mahmoud Elyasi
  • Massoumeh Khodaei Moghaddam

چکیده [English]


Describing and Analysing  some Polite Words in Persian based on Brown and Levinson’ s Politeness Theory




Massoumeh Khodaei Moghaddam[1]
Mahmoud Elyasi[2]
Shahla Sharifi   [3]
                                                                                     Received: 10/19/2014
                                                                                    Accepted:   1/11/2015                        
Abstract




This research, based on Politeness Theory, describes and analyzes five common words and expressions of politeness used in Persian. The data has been collected out of observations and  note taking of real conversations in different natural situations as on streets, shopping centers, universities, parties, etc. Words and expressions of politeness have different meanings in different contexts. The results show that Persian speakers not only use politeness speech for mitigating face threatening acts (FTA), but also use it for the maintenance and enhancement of addressees’ face and honor. This can lead us to one of the limitations of Brown and Levinson’s (1987) Politeness Theory which describes politeness by mitigating FTA. The results also show that the major underlying strategy of words and expressions of politeness is “negative politeness” strategy. It might be worth mentioning that these words and expressions are used by speakers mostly in formal or close to formal contexts.




Keywords: politeness, Politeness Strategies, function, face, context





 



[1] Doctoral Candidate, Linguistics; ma.khodaeimoghaddam@mail.um.ac.ir,
( Corresponding Author).


[2] Assistant Professor, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad; elyasim@um.ac.ir


[3] Associate Professor , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad; sh-sharifi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Politeness
  • Politeness Strategies
  • Function
  • Face
  • context

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